Drs. Aisha Oliver and Erika Harvey Sparks address common questions and concerns about the COVID-19 vaccine.
DR. AISHA OLIVER: The vaccines are consistently being evaluated for safety and efficacy. And these clinical trials are divided into three phases. In the first phase, we're looking at trials of fewer than 100 people, so smaller groups. Within this, they identify efficacy of the vaccine. They identify if there are any side effects.
Moving on to phase 2, you've got several hundred people. And in phase 3, you're looking at thousands of people. And in this phase of the clinical trials, we're having people in this that are of different age groups, still of the different cultural backgrounds, and they divide that up into those who receive the vaccine and those who receive the placebo.
So what they're looking at in phase 3 is, how effective is the vaccine in the group that was vaccinated? Do we see better results compared to the group that is in the placebo group?
AISHA OLIVER: Antes de que el FDA o Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos determine si aprueba una vacuna o autoriza una vacuna para uso de emergencia, los ensayos clínicos se llevan a cabo en 3 fases para determinar la eficacia de la vacuna. En la fase 1 se crean grupos pequeños, menos de 100 personas, para probar la seguridad de la dosis y también los efectos secundarios. En la fase 2, si no hay preocupaciones de seguridad de los estudios en fase 1, los grupos de vacunas se amplían a cientos de adultos, que pueden tener una variedad de problemas de salud o de diferentes orígenes, como en las comunidades latinoamericanos. Y todo es para asegurar de que sea seguro.
En la fase 3, ahora el estudio se amplía más todavía para incluir miles de adultos de distintas edades, de orígenes y algunos reciben la vacuna y otros reciben el placebo. Luego, ven cuántas personas que recibieron la vacuna estaban protegidas contra la enfermedad en comparación con los que recibieron el placebo. El CDC o Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedad continúa a evaluar la vacuna en las condiciones reales.
CVS pharmacy supervisor Dr. Aisha Oliver explains how clinical trials help ensure that vaccines are safe and effective.
AISHA OLIVER: mRNA instructs the cell on how to make a piece of the spike protein that's very unique to this virus. Viral vector vaccines use a modified virus, which delivers a gene that instructs our cells on how to make an antigen called the spike protein. The spike protein then instructs the cells on creating antibodies. Those antibodies then trigger an immune response, which can prevent future infections because it allows your body to recognize that foreign substance.
AISHA OLIVER: El ARN mensajero es exactamente eso, es un mensajero. Y un mensajero es algo que le dé instrucciones a la célula sobre cómo fabricar un pedazo de la proteína de la espícula conocido como un [INGLÉS]. Ahora, esta proteína es exclusiva a este virus y hace que el sistema inmunológico comience a producir anticuerpos.
¿Qué quiere decir eso? Eso significa que el cuerpo se está preparando para protegerse contra futuras infecciones. Ahora, las vacunas de vectores virales utilizan un virus modificado que libera un gen que instruye a nuestras células a producir un antígeno. Este antígeno desencadena la producción de anticuerpos necesarios para una respuesta inmunológica. La ciencia sinceramente es una maravilla.
Hear from CVS pharmacy supervisor Dr. Aisha Oliver on how both types of vaccines allow your body to recognize COVID-19 and prevent infection.
LESLIE HARVEY SPARKS: So all of those that were included in the original clinical trials, those participants are still being followed up on to see how they're doing and what their long-term effects are. And just as with any vaccination that's out there, that's something that the government is always looking at, are, what are the long-term effects of any particular vaccine or medication that comes to the market? What we have found is what we're seeing in the short term and the benefits of the vaccine are definitely more positive than what we have seen with any negative outcomes.
LESLIE HARVEY SPARKS: Bueno la FDA y CDC continúan monitoreando la seguridad para garantizar que se identifiquen incluso los efectos a largo plazo, pero el riesgo de una posible infección grave por COVID-19 es más peligroso comparado con lo que se conoce actualmente sobre la seguridad de las vacunas.
Dr. Lesley Harvey Sparks, CVS pharmacy district leader, explains how clinical trial participants are monitored for possible side effects.
DR. LESLIE HARVEY SPARKS: Even if you've had COVID-19, you've overcome it and you're well now, we're still learning how long your immunity is going to last. So you still want to get vaccinated the first opportunity that you're eligible.
If you received plasma treatment, you received antibodies, we definitely still encourage you to also be vaccinated against COVID-19. We ask that you wait 90 days. But as soon as that 90-day period is over with, we ask you to get vaccinated as soon as you're eligible.
Sí, debe vacunarse sin importar si tuvo la enfermedad. Los expertos todavía no saben cuánto tiempo está protegido, o sabe cuánto tiempo para uno enfermarse nuevamente luego de que se haya recuperado. Si recibió un tratamiento para la COVID-19 con anticuerpos monoclonales, o plasma de personas convalecientes, debería esperar 90 días antes de vacunarse. Pero hable con su médico si no está seguro.
Even if you received plasma treatment or antibodies, you should still get vaccinated, says Dr. Lesley Harvey Sparks, CVS pharmacy district leader.
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