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Myopathy: Selected Tests

Number: 0862



Policy

Aetna considers pyrophosphate muscle scan in the evaluation of myalgia and myositis experimental and investigational because there is no clinical evidence to support the use of pyrophosphate muscle scan in the evaluation of myalgia and myositis.

Aetna considers the Myoglobinuria Test Panel experimental and investigational because there is no clinical evidence to support the use of the Myoglobinuria Test Panel.

For myositis antibody panel, see CPB 0866 - Rheumatic Diseases: Selected Tests.

 

Background

Myalgia is muscular pain or tenderness. Muscle pain can also involve ligaments, tendons and fascia, the soft tissues that connect muscles, bones and organs together. Myositis is an inflammation or swelling of the muscles and may be caused by injury, infection or an autoimmune disorder.

The Myoglobinuria Test Panel is used for individuals with exercise intolerance related weakness, pain, cramping and idiopathic myoglobulinuria. The test, using muscle tissue, detects specific enzymes related to metabolic function. Diseases tested for include Phosphofructokinase deficiency (PFK), McArdle's disease, Tarui's disease, Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency (PGK), Phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency (PGAM), Lactate Dehydrogenase deficiency (LDH), Glycogen, Phosphorylase A+ total deficiency (Ph), Phosphorylase B kinase deficiency (PhK), Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency (CPT2) and Myoadenylate Deaminase deficiency (MAD). The Myoglobinuria Test Panel is a proprietary test of Athena Diagnostics. There is no clinical evidence to support the use of the Myoglobinuria Test Panel.

The pyrophosphate muscle scan or scintigraphy, is a nuclear imaging technique evaluating the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate to reflect muscle viability and activity. According to Rider and colleagues, 2002, several types of scintigraphy have been used to image the muscles of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, including antimyosin, 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate, and 67gallium, each demonstrating uptake in inflamed, but not atrophied, muscles. The clinical usefulness of scintigraphy in the assessment of myositis is not clear.

CPT Codes / HCPCS Codes / ICD-9 Codes
CPT codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB:
83615 Lactate dehydrogenase (LD), (LDH)
84311 Spectrophotometry, analyte not elsewhere specified
HCPCS codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB:
A9538 Technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate, diagnostic, per study dose, up to 25 millicuries
ICD-9 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all inclusive) :
729.1 Unspecified myalgia and myositis
CPT Codes / HCPCS Codes / ICD-9 Codes
Information in the [brackets] below has been added for clarification purposes.   Codes requiring a 7th character are represented by "+":
ICD-10 codes will become effective as of October 1, 2015:
CPT codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB:
83615 Lactate dehydrogenase (LD), (LDH)
84311 Spectrophotometry, analyte not elsewhere specified
HCPCS codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB:
A9538 Technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate, diagnostic, per study dose, up to 25 millicuries
ICD-10 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all inclusive) :
M60.000 - M60.9 Myositis
M79.1 Myalgia
M79.7 Fibromyalgia


The above policy is based on the following references:
    1. Yonker RA, Webster EM, Edwards NL, et al. Technetium pyrophosphate muscle scans in inflammatory muscle disease. Br J Rheumatol. 1987;26(4):267-269.
    2. Timmons JH, Hartshorne MF, Peters VJ, et al. Muscle necrosis in the extremities: Evaluation with Tc-99m pyrophosphate scanning--a retrospective review. Radiology. 1988;167(1):173-178.
    3. Amato AA, Barohn RJ. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Neurol Clin. 1997;15(3):615-648.
    4. Mastaglia FL, Phillips BA. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: epidemiology, classification, and diagnostic criteria. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28(4):723-741.
    5. Targoff IN. Laboratory testing in the diagnosis and management of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28(4):859-890.
    6. Rider LG. Outcome assessment in the adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28(4):935-977.


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