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Aetna Aetna
Clinical Policy Bulletin:
Human Fibrinogen Concentrate (RiaSTAP)
Number: 0792


Policy

Aetna considers RiaSTAP (human fibrinogen concentrate) medically necessary for the treatment of acute bleeding episodes in persons with congenital fibrinogen deficiency including afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia when both of the following criteria are met:

  • Diagnosis of congenital fibrinogen deficiency has been confirmed by blood coagulation testing; and
  • Poor response to cryoprecipitate in previous bleeding episodes.

Aetna considers RiaSTAP experimental and investigational for the treatment of the following indications (not an all inclusive list) because its effecriveness for these indications has not been established.

  • Acquired hypofibrinogenemia
  • Dysfibrinogenemia
  • Obstetric hemorrhage including post-partum haemorrhage in persons without congenital fibrinogen deficiency
  • Peri-operative (pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative) hemorrhage in persons without congenital fibrinogen deficiency
  • Trauma-associated hemorrhage in persons without congenital fibrinogen deficiency.


Background

Fibrinogen, also known as Factor I, is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the blood with a normal plasma concentration of 250 to 400 mg/dL (2.5 to 4.0 g/L).  It plays an important role in clotting of the blood.  Diminished concentrations of fibrinogen limit the body's ability to form a clot.  Congenital fibrinogen deficiency (CFD) is a rare, potentially life-threatening bleeding disorder.  Individuals with CFD are unable to make sufficient amounts of fibrinogen.  There are 2 types of hereditary fibrinogen disorders: (i) type I deficiencies (quantitative defects) such as afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia -- with low or unmeasurable levels of immunoreactive protein; and (ii) type II deficiencies (qualitative defects) such as dysfibrinogenemia and hypodysfibrinogenemia -- with normal or altered antigen levels associated with reduced coagulant activity.  While dysfibrinogenemias are in most cases autosomal dominant disorders, type I deficiencies are generally inherited as autosomal recessive traits.  Patients affected by congenital afibrinogenemia or severe hypofibrinogenemia may experience bleeding manifestations varying from mild to severe (Asselta et al, 2006).

Congenital fibrinogen deficiency affects an estimated 1 person per 1,000,000, with an estimated prevalence of 150 to 300 people in the United States.  It is usually diagnosed at birth when newborns bleed from their umbilical cord site.  al-Mondhiry and Ehmann (1994) noted that diagnosis of congenital afibrinogenemia is usually established by demonstrating trace or absent immunoreactive fibrinogen in the plasma.  Patients with hypofibrinogenemia are usually asymptomatic, unless exposed to trauma.  Furthermore, Berube (2009) stated that disorders involving fibrinogen are rare but should be considered in any patient with a history of hemorrhage or thrombosis in whom most of the common causes have been ruled out.  Blood coagulation tests such as prothrombin time (PT) that is often reported as the International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin clotting time (TCT) or thrombin time (TT) all require the production of a fibrin clot as an end point, and will be abnormally prolonged in patients with hypofibrinogenemia or afibrinogenemia.  Abnormal laboratory results in patients with afibrinogenemia will correct completely following administration of normal plasma or purified fibrinogen.  Accordingly, these tests are sensitive for the presence of a fibrinogen disorder, but lack specificity.

Verhovsek and colleagues (2008) provided examples of methods and findings for commonly used laboratory tests for afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia:

 

Afibrinogenemia

 Hypofibrinogenemia

Clinical Problem

Trauma-related intra-cranial hemorrhage at age 40.  Subsequent trauma-related and surgery-related bleeding

Recurrent pregnancy loss from placental abruptions

PT (normal: 11 to 14 sec)

No clot detected

14.2

INR (normal: 0.8 to 1.2)

No clot detected

1.2

APTT (normal: 22 to 35 sec)

No clot detected

32

TCT or TT (normal: 20 - 30 sec)

No clot detected

46

Reptilase time (normal: 15 - 27 sec)

> 60

33

Clottable fibrinogen (normal: 160 - 420 mg/dL)

< 20

60

Fibrinogen antigen (normal: 160 - 420 mg/dL)

< 10

60

Ratio of fibrinogen antigen to clottable
fibrinogen

--

1.0

Individuals with CFD are advised to curtail physical activities because of risk of bleeding from minor trauma.  If bleeding occurs in the brain or other organs and is left untreated, it may lead to blood loss, organ damage and death.  The standard approach for replacement of fibrinogen in patients with CFD is cryoprecipitate; but more recently, a pasteurized human fibrinogen concentrate has become available.

In an open, multi-center, non-controlled, retrospective study, Kreuz and co-workers (2005) examined the effectiveness and tolerability of a pasteurized human fibrinogen concentrate in patients with CFD.  Hemostatic efficacy was assessed by laboratory investigation as well as clinical observation.  A total of 12 patients (afibrinogenemia, n = 8; hypofibrinogenemia, n = 3; dysfibrinogenemia combined with hypofibrinogenemia, n = 1) were included in the study.  Fibrinogen substitution was indicated for one of the following reasons: (i) to stop an ongoing bleed; (ii) as prophylaxis before surgery; or (iii) for routine prophylaxis to prevent spontaneous bleeding.  A total of 151 fibrinogen infusions were recorded.  The median single dosage was 63.5 mg/kg body weight of the drug for bleeding events or surgery and 76.9 mg/kg for prophylaxis.  The median total dose per event for bleeding events or surgery was 105.6 mg/kg.  Fibrinogen was administered in 26 bleeding episodes; 11 surgical operations; and 89 prophylactic infusions, of which 86 were received by 1 patient.  The median response (n = 8) was 1.5 mg/dL per substituted mg of fibrinogen per kg body weight (0.8 to 2.3).  The median in vivo recovery (n = 8) was 59.8 % (32.5 to 93.9).  Clinical efficacy was very good in all events with the exception of one surgical procedure, where it was moderate.  No intercurrent bleeding occurred during prophylaxis.  All but 1 infusion was well-tolerated; the patient, who was administered 86 prophylactic infusions, experienced an anaphylactic reaction after the 56th infusion.  In addition, one patient developed deep vein thrombosis and nonfatal pulmonary embolism with treatment for osteosynthesis after collum femoris fracture.  Fibrinogen substitution could not be excluded as a contributing factor in this high-risk patient.  The authors concluded that substitution with pasteurized human fibrinogen concentrate in patients with CFD is efficient and generally well tolerated.

Fenger-Eriksen and colleagues (2008) noted that patients experiencing massive hemorrhage are at high risk of developing coagulopathy through loss, consumption, and dilution of coagulation factors and platelets.  It has been reported that plasma fibrinogen concentrations may reach a critical low level relatively early during bleeding, calling for replacement fibrinogen therapy.  These researchers audited the effects of fibrinogen concentrate therapy on laboratory and clinical outcome in patients with massive hemorrhage.  They identified 43 patients over the previous 2 years to whom a fibrinogen concentrate had been administered as treatment for hypofibrinogenemia during serious hemorrhage.  Platelet count, plasma fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, and volume of blood lost were obtained from medical and laboratory records.  Numbers of units of red blood cells (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and pooled platelet concentrates were recorded before and after fibrinogen substitution.  A significant increase in plasma fibrinogen concentration was observed after fibrinogen concentrate therapy.  Platelet counts and fibrin D-dimer values remained unchanged, whereas the APTT and PT improved significantly.  Requirements for RBC, FFP, and platelets were significantly reduced; blood loss decreased significantly.  The authors concluded that fibrinogen substitution therapy with a fibrinogen concentrate generally improved global laboratory coagulation results; and as supplementary intervention, appeared to reduce the requirements for RBC, FFP, and platelet substitution in this patient cohort.

On January 16, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed RiaSTAP (human fibrinogen concentrate) for the treatment of acute bleeding in patients with CFD.  RiaSTAP is a purified fibrinogen concentrate made from the plasma of healthy human donors that undergoes virus inactivation and removal for safety assurance.  It was developed under the FDA’s accelerated approval regulations for orphan drugs.  There have been more than 1,000,000 units sold worldwide (outside the United States, RiaSTAP is marketed under the trade name of Haemocomplettan).  RiaSTAP is indicated for the treatment of acute bleeding episodes in patients with CFD including afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia; it is not indicated for dysfibrinogenemia.

The licensing of RiaSTAP was based on a phase II, prospective, open-label, safety and pharmacokinetic study using maximum clot firmness (MCF) as a surrogate endpoint for hemostatic efficacy.  A total of 15 patients with afibrinogenemia achieved the target level of fibrinogen expected to prevent bleeding after they received 70 mg/kg body weight of the drug.  In addition, plasma from 14 of the 15 patients showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) mean improvement in MCF from baseline to 1 hour post-infusion following RiaSTAP treatment.  The most serious adverse reactions that have been reported in clinical studies or through post-marketing surveillance following RiaSTAP treatment are allergic-anaphylactic reactions and thromboembolic episodes, including myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis and arterial thrombosis.  The most common adverse reactions that have been reported after RiaSTAP therapy are allergic reactions and generalized reactions such as chills, fever, headache, as well as nausea and vomiting.

In addition to the treatment of CFD, human fibrinogen concentrate has also been employed in the management of other hypofibrinogenemic conditions such as acquired hypofibrinogenemia and post-operative hemorhage.  Clinical data for the use of human fibrinogen concentrate in acquired hypofibrinogenemic states are scarce.  Weinkove and Rangarajan (2008) evaluated the safety and effectiveness of Haemocomplettan in patients with acquired hypofibrinogenemia.  Demographical and pre-treatment clinical data of patients treated with Haemocomplettan were retrospectively reviewed.  Pre- and post-treatment fibrinogen levels, transfusion requirements, outcomes and adverse reactions were recorded.  A total of 30 adult patients who received Haemocomplettan for acquired hypofibrinogenemia (plasma fibrinogen concentration less than 1.5 g/L) were included in the study.  Causes of hypofibrinogenemia included placental abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation as a result of massive blood loss and transfusion, liver failure and cardiac surgery.  Following a median dose of 4 g Haemocomplettan, median Clauss fibrinogen level rose from 0.65 to 2.01 g/L, with a median fibrinogen increment of 0.25 g/L per 1 g fibrinogen concentrate administered.  It was reporetd that 46 % of patients stopped bleeding with blood components and Haemocomplettan alone, and a further 29 % stopped bleeding with surgical or endoscopic intervention.  Inpatient mortality was 40 %; no venous thromboses were observed.  A total of 4 patients with massive perioperative hemorrhage and hypotension (including 3 post-cardiothoracic surgery) had arterial ischemic events, however, none of which was attributable to over-replacement of fibrinogen.  The cost of Haemocomplettan was comparable with that of cryo-precipitate.  The authors concluded that purified human fibrinogen concentrate appears effective in the management of acquired hypofibrinogenemia.

Bleeding diathesis after aortic valve operation and ascending aorta replacement (AV-AA) is usually managed with FFP and platelet concentrates.  In a pilot study, Rahe-Meyer et al (2009) compared hemostatic effects of conventional transfusion management and FIBTEM (thromboelastometry test)-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration.  A blood-product transfusion algorithm was developed with retrospective data from 42 elective patients (group A).  Two units of platelet concentrate were transfused after cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by 4 units of FFP if bleeding persisted, if platelet count was less than or equal to 100 x 10(3) microl(-1) when removing the aortic clamp, and vice versa if platelet count was greater than 100 x 10(3) microl(-1).  The trigger for each therapy step was greater than or equal to 60 g blood absorbed from the mediastinal wound area by dry swabs in 5 mins.  Assignment to two prospective groups was neither randomized nor blinded; group B (n = 5) was treated according to the algorithm, group C (n = 10) received Haemocomplettan/RiaSTAP before the algorithm-based therapy.  A mean of 5.7 (0.7) g fibrinogen concentrate decreased blood loss to below the transfusion trigger level in all group C patients.  Group C had reduced transfusion [mean of 0.7 (range of 0 to 4) units versus 8.5 (5.3) units in group A and 8.2 (2.3) units in group B] and reduced post-operative bleeding [366 (199) ml versus 793 (560) ml in group A and 716 (219) ml in group B].  The authors concluded that in this pilot study, FIBTEM-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration was associated with reduced transfusion requirements and 24-hr post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing AV-AA.

In a prospective randomised pilot study, Karlsson et al (2009) examined if prophylactic infusion of fibrinogen concentrate may reduce post-operative bleeding.  A total of 20 elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients with pre-operative plasma fibrinogen levels of less than 3.8 g/L were included in this study.  Patients were randomized to receive an infusion of 2 g fibrinogen concentrate (FIB group) or no infusion before surgery (control group).  Primary endpoint was safety with clinical adverse events and graft occlusion assessed by multi-slice computed tomography.  Pre-defined secondary endpoints were post-operative blood loss, blood transfusions, hemoglobin levels 24 hrs after surgery, and global hemostasis assessed with thromboelastometry, 2 and 24 hrs after surgery.  Infusion of 2 g fibrinogen concentrate increased plasma levels of fibrinogen by 0.6 +/- 0.2 g/L.  There were no clinically detectable adverse events of fibrinogen infusion.  Computed tomography revealed 1 sub-clinical vein graft occlusion in the FIB group.  Fibrinogen concentrate infusion reduced post-operative blood loss by 32 % (565 +/- 150 versus 830 +/- 268 ml/12 hrs, p = 0.010).  Hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher 24 hrs after surgery in the FIB group (110 +/- 12 versus 98 +/- 8 g/L, p = 0.018).  Prophylactic fibrinogen concentrate infusion did not influence global post-operative hemostasis as assessed by thromboelastometry.  The authors concluded that in this pilot study pre-operative fibrinogen concentrate infusion reduced bleeding after CABG without evidence of post-operative hypercoagulability.  They stated that larger studies are needed to ensure safety and confirm efficacy of prophylactic fibrinogen treatment in cardiac surgery.

Mercier and Bonnet (2010) reviewed the optimal use of blood products and clarified the indications for prohemostatic drugs in obstetric hemorrhage.  The literature emphasizes the usefulness of transfusing packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelets earlier and in defined ratios to prevent dilutional coagulopathy during obstetric hemorrhage.  It seems reasonable to use blood products for transfusion earlier and in a 1: 1 fresh frozen plasma: red blood cell ratio during acute obstetric hemorrhage; however, this analysis is mainly based on trauma literature.  Fibrinogen concentrate should be added if the fibrinogen plasma level remains below 1.0 g/L and perhaps even as soon as it falls below 1.5 to 2.0 g/L; the addition of tranexamic acid (1 g) is cheap, likely to be useful and appears safe.  Data on the proactive administration of platelets are insufficient to recommend this practice routinely.  Presently, recombinant factor VIIa (60 to 90 microg/kg) is advocated only after failure of other conventional therapies, including embolization or conservative surgery, but prior to obstetric hysterectomy.  The authors stated that prospective randomized controlled trials are highly desirable to examine the use of clotting factors and other prohemostatic drugs for the management of obstetric hemorrhage.

Wikkelsoe and colleagues (2012) described the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (FIB-PPH trial) to examine the effects of fibrinogen concentrate as initial treatment for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).  In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial, parturients with primary PPH are eligible following vaginal delivery in case of manual removal of placenta (blood loss [greater than or equal to] 500 ml) or manual exploration of the uterus after the birth of placenta (blood loss [greater than or equal to] 1,000 ml).  Caesarean sections are also eligible in case of peri-operative blood loss [greater than or equal to] 1,000 ml.  The exclusion criteria are known inherited hemostatic deficiencies, pre-partum treatment with anti-thrombotics, pre-pregnancy weight less than 45 kg or refusal to receive blood transfusion.  Following informed consent, patients will be randomly allocated to either early treatment with 2 g fibrinogen concentrate or 100 ml isotonic saline (placebo).  Hemostatic monitoring with standard laboratory coagulation tests and thrombo-elastography (TEG, functional fibrinogen and RapidTEG) is performed during the initial 24 hours.  Primary outcome is the need for blood transfusion.  To examine a 33 % reduction in the need for blood transfusion a total of 245 patients will be included.  Four university affiliated public tertiary care hospitals will include patients during a 2-year period.  Adverse events including thrombosis are assessed in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) - good clinical practice (GCP).  The authors concluded that a widespread belief in the benefits of early fibrinogen substitution in cases of PPH has led to increased off-label use.  The FIB-PPH trial is investigator-initiated and aims to provide an evidence-based platform for the recommendations of the early use of fibrinogen concentrate in PPH.

Schochl et al (2010) reported the treatment of major trauma using mainly coagulation factor concentrates.  This retrospective analysis included trauma patients who received greater than or equal to 5 units of red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours.  Coagulation management was guided by thromboelastometry (ROTEM).  Fibrinogen concentrate was given as first-line hemostatic therapy when maximum clot firmness (MCF) measured by FibTEM (fibrin-based test) was less than 10 mm.  Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was given in case of recent coumarin intake or clotting time measured by extrinsic activation test (EXTEM) greater than 1.5 times normal.  Lack of improvement in EXTEM MCF after fibrinogen concentrate administration was an indication for platelet concentrate.  The observed mortality was compared with the mortality predicted by the trauma injury severity score (TRISS) and by the revised injury severity classification (RISC) score.  Of 131 patients included, 128 received fibrinogen concentrate as first-line therapy, 98 additionally received PCC, while 3 patients with recent coumarin intake received only PCC.  Twelve patients received FFP and 29 received platelet concentrate.  The observed mortality was 24.4 %, lower than the TRISS mortality of 33.7 % (p = 0.032) and the RISC mortality of 28.7 % (p > 0.05).  After excluding 17 patients with traumatic brain injury, the difference in mortality was 14 % observed versus 27.8 % predicted by TRISS (p = 0.0018) and 24.3 % predicted by RISC (p = 0.014).  The authors concluded that ROTEM-guided hemostatic therapy, with fibrinogen concentrate as first-line hemostatic therapy and additional PCC, was goal-directed and fast.  A favorable survival rate was observed.  Moreover, they stated that prospective, randomized trials to investigate this therapeutic alternative further appear warranted.

Wafaisade et al (2012) examined if blood component transfusion and hemostatic drug administration during acute trauma care have changed in daily practice during the recent years.  The multi-center trauma registry of the German Society for Trauma was retrospectively analyzed for primarily admitted patients older than 16 years with an Injury Severity Score greater than or equal to 16 who had received at least 5 red blood cell (RBC) units between emergency room arrival and intensive care unit admission.  Administration of FFP and platelet units has been documented since 2002, and use of hemostatic drugs since 2005.  From 2002 to 2009 (n = 2,813), the FFP:RBC ratio increased from 0.65 to 0.75 (p = 0.02) and the platelet:RBC ratio from 0.04 to 0.09 (p < 0.0001).  A constant increase was also observed regarding the overall use of hemostatic drugs (n = 1,811; 2005 to 2009) as these were administered to 43.4 % of the patients in 2005 and to 60.7 % in 2009 (p < 0.0001).  In particular, the administration of fibrinogen concentrate (2005: 17.0 %, 2009: 45.6 %; p < 0.0001) and recombinant factor VIIa (2005: 1.9 %, 2009: 6.3 %; p = 0.04) showed a marked increase.  However, mortality rates remained unchanged during the 8-year study period.  The authors concluded that therapy of bleeding trauma patients has changed in Germany during the recent years toward more aggressive coagulation support.  This development continues although grades of evidence are still low regarding most of the changes reported in this study.  They stated that randomized controlled trials are needed with respect to blood component therapy using pre-defined ratios and to the administration of hemostatic drugs commonly used for the severely injured.

Grottke (2012) noted that trauma-induced coagulopathy is a frequent complication in severely injured patients.  To correct coagulopathy and restore hemostasis, these patients have traditionally been treated with fresh frozen plasma, but in the last decade, there has been a shift from empirical therapy to targeted therapy with coagulation factor concentrates and other hemostatic agents.  This investigator highlighted emerging therapeutic options and controversial topics.  Early administration of the anti-fibrinolytic medication tranexamic acid was shown in the multi-center CRASH-2 trial to be an effective and inexpensive means of decreasing blood loss.  Numerous retrospective and experimental studies have shown that the use of coagulation factor concentrates decreases blood loss and may be useful in reducing the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood products.  In particular, early use of fibrinogen concentrate and thrombin generators has a positive impact on hemostasis.  However, the use of prothrombin complex concentrate to correct trauma-induced coagulopathy has also been associated with a potential risk of serious adverse events.  The author concluded that current evidence in trauma resuscitation indicated a potential role for coagulation factor concentrates and other hemostatic agents in correcting trauma-induced coagulopathy.  They stated that despite a shift towards such transfusion strategy, there remains a shortage of data to support this approach.

Ziegler et al (2013) stated that use of allogeneic blood products to treat pediatric trauma may be challenged, particularly in relation to safety.  These researchers reported successful treatment of a child with severe abdominal and pelvic injuries with preemptive fibrinogen supplementation followed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-guided, goal-directed hemostatic therapy.  Fibrinogen concentrate was administered (total dose: 2 g), while transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate was avoided.  Activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged and Quick values were low but ROTEM clotting time values remained normal, therefore, no thrombin-generating drugs were considered necessary.  The authors concluded that this case showed the potential for hemostatic treatment with coagulation factor concentrates to be applied to pediatric trauma.

Wafaisade et al (2013) examined if the administration of fibrinogen concentrate (FC) in severely injured patients was associated with improved outcomes.  Patients documented in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (primary admissions, Injury Severity Score [ISS] greater than or equal to 16) who had received FC during initial care between emergency department (ED) arrival and intensive care unit admission (FC+) were matched with patients who had not received FC (FC-).  The matched-pairs analysis yielded two comparable cohorts (n = 294 in each group) with a mean ISS of 37.6 ± 13.7 (FC+) and 37.1 ± 13.3 (FC-) (p = 0.73); the mean age was 40 ± 17 versus 40 ± 16 (p = 0.72), respectively.  Patients were predominantly male (71.1 % in both groups, p = 1.0).  On ED arrival, hypotension (systolic blood pressure, less than or equal to 90 mm Hg) occurred in 51.4 % (FC+) and 48.0 % (FC-) (p = 0.41), and base excess was -7.4 ± 5.3 mmol/L for FC+ and was -7.5 ± 6.2 mmol/L for FC- (p = 0.96).  Patients were administered 12.8 ± 14.3 (FC+) versus 11.3 ± 10.0 (FC-) packed red blood cell units (p = 0.20).  Thromboembolism occurred in 6.8 % (FC+) versus 3.4 % (FC-) (p = 0.06), and multi-organ failure occurred in 61.2 % versus 49.0 % (p = 0.003), respectively. Whereas 6-hour mortality was 10.5 % for FC+ versus 16.7 % for FC- (p = 0.03), the mean time to death was 7.5 ± 14.6 days versus 4.7 ± 8.6 days (p = 0.006).  The overall hospital mortality rate was 28.6 % versus 25.5 % (p = 0.40), respectively.  The authors concluded that this was the first study to investigate the effect of FC administration in bleeding trauma.  In this large population of severely injured patients, the early use of FC was associated with a significantly lower 6-hour mortality and an increased time to death, but also an increased rate of multi-organ failure.  A reduction of overall hospital mortality was not observed in patients receiving FC.

In a single-center, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, Rahe-Meyer et al (2013) examined if fibrinogen concentrate can reduce blood transfusion when given as intra-operative, targeted, first-line hemostatic therapy in bleeding patients undergoing aortic replacement surgery.  Patients aged 18 years or older undergoing elective thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aortic replacement surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized to fibrinogen concentrate or placebo, administered intra-operatively.  Study medication was given if patients had clinically relevant coagulopathic bleeding immediately after removal from cardiopulmonary bypass and completion of surgical hemostasis.  Dosing was individualized using the fibrin-based thrombo-elastometry test.  If bleeding continued, a standardized transfusion protocol was followed.  A total of 29 patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group and 32 patients in the placebo group were eligible for the efficacy analysis.  During the first 24 hours after the administration of study medication, patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group received fewer allogeneic blood components than did patients in the placebo group (median, 2 versus 13 U; p < 0.001; primary endpoint).  Total avoidance of transfusion was achieved in 13 (45 %) of 29 patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group, whereas 32 (100 %) of 32 patients in the placebo group received transfusion (p < 0.001).  There was no observed safety concern with using fibrinogen concentrate during aortic surgery.  The authors concluded that hemostatic therapy with fibrinogen concentrate in patients undergoing aortic surgery significantly reduced the transfusion of allogeneic blood products.  Moreover, they stated that larger multi-center studies are needed to confirm the role of fibrinogen concentrate in the management of peri-operative bleeding in patients with life-threatening coagulopathy.

In a prospective, randomized, open-label study, Tanaka et al (2013) compared hematologic and transfusion profiles between the first-line acquired fibrinogen (FIB) replacement and platelet transfusion in post-cardiac surgical bleeding.  A total of 20 adult patients who underwent valve replacement or repair and fulfilled preset visual bleeding scale were randomized to 4 g of FIB or 1 unit of apheresis platelets.  Primary end-points included hemostatic condition in the surgical field and 24-hour hemostatic product usage.  Hematologic data, clinical outcome, and safety data were collected up to the 28th day post-operative visit.  In patients who received the first-line FIB concentrate (n = 10), the visual bleeding scale improved after intervention, and the incidence of platelet transfusion and total plasma donor exposure were lower compared to the platelet group (n = 10).  Post-intervention FIB level was statistically higher (209 mg/dL versus 165 mg/dL) in the FIB group than in the platelet group, but platelet count and prothrombin were lower.  There were no statistical differences in the post-operative blood loss and red blood cell transfusion between 2 groups.  The authors concluded that these preliminary data indicated that the primary FIB replacement may potentially reduce the incidence of platelet transfusion and the number of donor exposures.  These preliminary findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

RiaSTAP is available as single-use vials containing 900 to 1,300 mg lyophilized fibrinogen concentrate powder for reconstitution.  Actual fibrinogen potency for each lot is printed on vial label and carton.  The dosing of RiaSTAP is as follows (Israels, 2009; CSL Behring US Package Insert, 2009):

Adult:

  • Administer intravenously, not to exceed injection rate of 5 ml/min.
  • Dose (mg/kg) = (Target level [mg/dL] - measured level [mg/dL]) divided by 1.7; if fibrinogen level unknown, use 70 mg/kg body weight.
  • Maintain target fibrinogen level of 100 mg/dL until hemostasis is obtained.

Pediatric:

  • Data limited; clinical trials included 4 children less than 16 years of age.
  • Children exhibited shorter half-life (69.9 +/- 8.5 hrs) and faster clearance (0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/L) than adults (half-life = 82.3 +/- 20.0 hrs; clearance = 0.53 +/- 0.1 mg/L), but limited number of children restricts statistical interpretation of these data.
 
CPT Codes / HCPCS Codes / ICD-9 Codes
Other CPT codes related to the CPB:
85384
85385
96374
96375
96376
96379
HCPCS codes covered if selection criteria are met:
J7178 Injection, human fibrinogen concentrate, 1 mg
Other HCPCS codes related to the CPB:
P9012 Cryoprecipitate, each unit
ICD-9 codes covered if selection criteria are met:
286.3 Congenital deficiency of other clotting factors
ICD-9 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all-inclusive):
286.6 Defibrination syndrome
666.00 - 666.34 Postpartum hemorrhage
674.30- 674.34 Other complications of obstetrical surgical wounds
958.2 Certain early complication of trauma (secondary and recurrent hemorrhage)
998.11 Hemorrhage complicating a procedure


The above policy is based on the following references:
  1. al-Mondhiry H; Ehmann WC. Congenital afibrinogenemia. Am J Hematol 1994;46(4):343-347.
  2. Kreuz W, Meili E, Peter-Salonen K, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a pasteurised human fibrinogen concentrate in patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiency. Transfus Apher Sci. 2005;32(3):247-253.
  3. Asselta R, Duga S, Tenchini ML. The molecular basis of quantitative fibrinogen disorders. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4(10):2115-2129.
  4. Verhovsek M, Moffat KA, Hayward CP. Laboratory testing for fibrinogen abnormalities. Am J Hematol. 2008;83(12):928-931.
  5. Fenger-Eriksen C, Lindberg-Larsen M, Christensen AQ, et al. Fibrinogen concentrate substitution therapy in patients with massive haemorrhage and low plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101(6):769-773.
  6. Weinkove R, Rangarajan S. Fibrinogen concentrate for acquired hypofibrinogenaemic states. Transfus Med. 2008;18(3):151-157.
  7. Berube C. Disorders of fibrinogen. UptoDate [online serial]. Waltham, MA: UptoDate; January 23, 2009. 
  8. No authors listed. Pharmacy News Article: CSL Behring receives orphan-drug exclusivity for RiaSTAP(TM), first and only approved treatment of acute bleeding episodes in patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiency. Pharmacy Choice, March 29, 2009. Available at: http://www.pharmacychoice.com/news/article.cfm?Article_ID=351024. Accessed May 18, 2009.
  9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA approves RiaSTAP for treatment of bleeding in patients with rare genetic defect. FDA News. Rockville, MD: FDA; January 16, 2009. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2009/NEW01948.html. Accessed May 18, 2009.
  10. Rahe-Meyer N, Pichlmaier M, Haverich A, et al. Bleeding management with fibrinogen concentrate targeting a high-normal plasma fibrinogen level: A pilot study. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(6):785-792.
  11. Israels SJ. Inherited abnormalities of fibrinogen: Treatment and medication. eMedicine Pediatric Hematology. New York, NY: WebMD Medscape; February 12, 2009. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/960677-treatment. Accessed May 18, 2009.
  12. CSL Behring LLC. RiaSTAP, fibrinogen concentrate (human) for intravenous use, lyophilized powder for reconstitution. Full Prescribing Information.  Kankakee, IL: CSL Behring; January 2009.
  13. Tziomalos K, Vakalopoulou S, Perifanis V, Garipidou V. Treatment of congenital fibrinogen deficiency: Overview and recent findings. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5:843-848.
  14. Karlsson M, Ternström L, Hyllner M, et al. Prophylactic fibrinogen infusion reduces bleeding after coronary artery bypass surgery. A prospective randomised pilot study. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102(1):137-144.
  15. Mercier FJ, Bonnet MP. Use of clotting factors and other prohemostatic drugs for obstetric hemorrhage. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23(3):310-316.
  16. Schochl H, Nienaber U, Hofer G, et al. Goal-directed coagulation management of major trauma patients using thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate. Crit Care. 2010;14(2):R55.
  17. Kozek-Langenecker S, Sorensen B, Hess JR, Spahn DR. Clinical effectiveness of fresh frozen plasma compared with fibrinogen concentrate: A systematic review. Crit Care. 2011;15(5):R239.
  18. Wafaisade A, Lefering R, Maegele M, et al; Trauma Registry of DGU. Coagulation management of bleeding trauma patients is changing in German trauma centers: An analysis from the trauma registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72(4):936-942.
  19. Wikkelsoe AJ, Afshari A, Stensballe J, et al. The FIB-PPH trial: Fibrinogen concentrate as initial treatment for postpartum haemorrhage: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2012;13(1):110.
  20. Grottke O. Coagulation management. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2012;18(6):641-646.
  21. Ziegler B, Schimke C, Marchet P, et al. Severe pediatric blunt trauma -- successful ROTEM-guided hemostatic therapy with fibrinogen concentrate and no administration of fresh frozen plasma or platelets. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2013;19(4):453-459.
  22. Wafaisade A, Lefering R, Maegele M, et al; Trauma Registry of DGU. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate in exsanguinating trauma patients is associated with improved survival at 6 hours but not at discharge. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74(2):387-393; discussion 393-395.
  23. Rahe-Meyer N, Solomon C, Hanke A, et al. Effects of fibrinogen concentrate as first-line therapy during major aortic replacement surgery: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(1):40-50.
  24. Tanaka KA, Egan K, Szlam F, et al. Transfusion and hematologic variables after fibrinogen or platelet transfusion in valve replacement surgery: Preliminary data of purified lyophilized human fibrinogen concentrate versus conventional transfusion. Transfusion. 2013 May 30 [Epub ahead of print]


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