Aetna considers gastric freezing (intragastric hypothermia) experimental and investigational for chronic peptic ulcer disease or any other indications because there is insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness for these indications.
Gastric freezing for chronic peptic ulcer disease is a non-surgical treatment which was popular about 20 years ago but now is seldom performed. It has been abandoned due to a high complication rate, only temporary improvement experienced by patients, and a lack of effectiveness when tested by double-blind, controlled clinical trials. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has concluded that this procedure is obsolete.
CPT Codes / HCPCS Codes / ICD-9 Codes
HCPCS codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB:
Intragastric hypothermia using gastric freezing
ICD-9 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB: (not all-inclusive) :
530.00 - 533.91
The above policy is based on the following references:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Gastric freezing. Medicare Coverage Issues Manual §35-65. Baltimore, MD: CMS; 2004.
Nasbeth DC, Nicholson AJ, Newman WH, et al. The influence of intragastric cooling on acute experimental pancreatitis. Surg Forum. 1960;11:363-364.
Nasbeth DC, Goodale RL, Reif AE. Studies on the effect of intragastric cooling on acute experimental pancreatitis. Surgery. 1960;47:542-547.
Ruffin JM, Grizzle JE, Hightower NC, et al. A co-operative double-blind evaluation of gastric 'freezing' in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. N Engl J Med. 1969;281(1):16-19.
McIntyre JA, Jalil S, Deitel M. Clinical course after gastric freezing: Long-term follow-up of 74 patients and a review of the literature. Can J Surg. 1969;12(2):210-221.
Ruffin JM, Shingleton WM, McMillan WO Jr. Cold facts about gastric freezing. Postgrad Med. 1968;44(5):84-87.
Zikria BA, De Jesus RS, Cunnick WR, Ferrer JM Jr. Gastric 'freezing'--a clinical double-blind study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1967;47(3):208-214.
Barner HB, Collins CH, Jones TI, Garlick TB. Clinical gastric 'freezing'. Am J Dig Dis. 1966;11(8):625-629.
Marx FW Jr, Kolig G. The hazards of gastric freezing. Am J Dig Dis. 1966;11(4):272-278.
Lubos MC, Viril LC, Klotz AP. A controlled study of outpatient gastric freezing. Am J Dig Dis. 1966;11(4):266-271.
Wangensteen SL, Smith RB 3, Barker HG. Gastric cooling and gastric 'freezing'. Surg Clin North Am. 1966;46(2):463-475.
Hitchcock CR, Ruiz E, Sutherland D, Bitter JE. Eighteen-month follow-up of gastric freezing in 173 patients with duodenal ulcer. JAMA. 1966;195(2):71-75.
Scott HW Jr, O'Neill JA Jr, Snyder HE, Shull HJ. An evaluation of the long term results of gastric freezing for duodenal ulcer. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1965;121(4):723-727.
Rose H, Fordtran JS, Harrell R, Friedman B. A controlled study of gastric freezing for the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Gastroenterol. 1964;47:10-17
Perry GT, Dunphy JV, Fruin RC, Littman A. Gastric freezing for duodenal ulcer, a double blind study. Gastroenterol. 1964:47:6-9.
Goodale RL Jr, Ghanem M, Borner JW, et al. Improved technology and enhanced accomplishment of gastric freezing. An experimental study. Arch Surg. 1972;104(3):314-318.
Miao LL. Gastric freezing: An example of the evaluation of medical therapy by randomized clinical trials. In: Bunker JR, Barnes BA, Mostelloer F, eds. Cost, Risks and Benefits of Therapy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press:1977; Ch.12, pp. 198-211.
Fineberg HV. Gastric freezing: A study of diffusion of a medical innovation. In: Medical Technology and the Health Care System. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979, pp. 173-220.
Edmonson JM. Gastric freezing: The view a quarter century later. J Lab Clin Med. 1989;114(5):613-614.
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