Number: 0475

Table Of Contents

Applicable CPT / HCPCS / ICD-10 Codes


Aetna considers Coblation tonsillectomy medical necessary for the treatment of any of the following:

  • Peri-tonsillar abscess; or
  • Recurrent middle ear infection where tonsillar hypertrophy is believed to be an exacerbating factor; or
  • Recurrent or chronic tonsillar infection; or
  • Tonsillar hypertrophy leading to respiratory symptoms or airway obstruction.

Aetna considers the following experimental and investigational because their effectiveness has not been established (not an all-inclusive list):

  • Cervical Coblation nucleoplasty for the treatment of cervicogenic headache
  • Coblation adenoidectomy
  • Coblation annuloplasty for the treatment of cervical discogenic pain
  • Coblation-assisted arytenoidectomy for the treatment of infants with vocal cord paralysis
  • Coblation-assisted management of airway stenosis
  • Coblation-assisted surgical resection for the treatment of rhinosporidiosis
  • Coblation-assisted turbinoplasty and nasal Coblation plasma surgery for the treatment of allergic rhinitis
  • Coblation devices (e.g., Topaz Microdebrider) for the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions
  • Coblation for soft tissue stenosis of the external auditory canal
  • Coblation nasal septal swell body reduction for the  treatment of nasal obstruction
  • Coblation non-thermal volumetric tissue reduction for dysphagia, laryngo-tracheal papillomatosis, nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, removing soft tissue during arthroscopic surgery, spinal osteoid osteomas, and wound debridement (not an all-inclusive list)
  • Coblation of femoral and sciatic nerve for the treatment of stump pain and phantom limb pain
  • Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous Coblation of the thoracic nerve root for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia
  • Cordotomy by Coblation for the treatment of vocal fold immobility
  • CT-guided Gasserian ganglion nerve Coblation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia
  • Endoscopic Coblation cauterization for the treatment of pyriform sinus fistula
  • Percutaneous disc decompression with Coblation nucleoplasty for the treatment of cervical vertigo
  • Percutaneous thoracic paravertebral nerve Coblation for the treatment of thoracic neuropathic pain
  • Radiofrequency (RF) Coblation for the treatment of congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma
  • RF Coblation for the treatment of glottis cancer
  • RF Coblation for the treatment of laryngeal cancer
  • RF Coblation for the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans lesions
  • RF Coblation for the treatment of peri-scapular tendinopathy
  • RF Coblation for the treatment of tracheal tumors
  • RF to the nasal valve (Vivaer Nasal Airway Remodeling (Aerin Medical)) for the treatment of nasal airway obstruction
  • Transoral RF Coblation for the treatment of laryngopharyngeal vascular lesions
  • Videolaryngoscope-assisted Coblation for the treatment of epiglottic cysts.

For Coblation non-thermal volumetric tissue reduction for treatment of hypertrophy of nasal turbinates, see CPB 0592 - Radiofrequency Ablation of Hypertrophied Nasal Turbinates.

For Coblation (Nucleoplasty) for treatment of herniated discs, see CPB 0602 - Thermal Intradiscal Procedures.


CPT Codes / HCPCS Codes / ICD-10 Codes

Code Code Description

CPT codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB :

Coblation non-thermal volumetric tissue reduction or radio frequency coblation, cervical coblation nucleoplasty, coblation-assisted management of airway stenosis, coblation nasal septal swell body reduction, coblation for soft tissue stenosis of the external auditory canal, cordotomy by coblation of vocal fold, coblation adenoidectomy, CT-guided gasserian ganglion nerve coblation, percutaneous disc decompression with coblation nucleoplasty, videolaryngoscope-assisted coblation, coblation annuloplasty, computed tomography guided percutaneous coblation of the thoracic nerve root, transoral RF coblation, coblation-assisted arytenoidectomy - no specific code
30465 Repair of nasal vestibular stenosis (eg, spreader grafting, lateral nasal wall reconstruction) [not covered for Vivaer Nasal Airway Remodeling]
30469 Repair of nasal valve collapse with low energy, temperature-controlled (ie, radiofrequency) subcutaneous/submucosal remodeling

Other CPT codes related to the CPB:

29800 - 29999 Endoscopy/arthroscopy
31254 - 31288 Nasal/sinus endoscopy, surgical; ethmoid, maxillary, frontal, or sphenoid
31400 Arytenoidectomy or arytenoidopexy, external approach
31560 Laryngoscopy, direct, operative, with arytenoidectomy
31561 Laryngoscopy, direct, operative, with arytenoidectomy; with operating microscope or telescope
42820 - 42826 Tonsillectomy

ICD-10 codes covered if selection criteria are met:

J03.00 - J03.91 Acute tonsillitis
J35.01 Chronic tonsillitis
J35.1 Hypertrophy of tonsils
J36 Peritonsillar abscess

ICD-10 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all inclusive):

B02.22 Postherpetic trigeminal neuralgia
B48.1 Rhinosporidiosis
C32.0 - C32.9 Malignant neoplasm of larynx
C33 Malignant neoplasm of trachea
D10.6 Benign neoplasm of nasopharynx
D14.1 Benign neoplasm of larynx [papillomatosis of larynx]
D14.2 Benign neoplasm of trachea [papillomatosis of trachea]
D16.6 Benign neoplasm of vertebral column [spinal osteoid osteomas]
D37.05 Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of pharynx [congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma]
G44.81 Hypnic headache
G44.84 Primary exertional headache
G50.0 Trigeminal neuralgia
G54.6 Phantom limb syndrome with pain
H61.301 - H61.399 Acquired stenosis of external ear canal.
J34.3 Hypertrophy of nasal turbinates
J34.89 Other specified disorders of nose and nasal sinuses [nasal obstruction]
J38.00 - J38.02 Paralysis of vocal cords and larynx [vocal fold immobility]
J38.7 Other diseases of larynx [epiglottic cysts]
J39.8 Other specified diseases of upper respiratory tract [airway stenosis]
L89.000 - L89.95 Pressure ulcer of skin
M00.00 - M99.9 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Q16.1 Congenital absence, atresia and stricture of auditory canal (external)
R13.10 - R13.19 Dysphagia
R42 Dizziness and giddiness [cervical vertigo]
Too Numerous to List Open wound of head, neck, trunk and limbs
T20.00x+ - T32.99 Burns
T87.9 Unspecified complications of amputation stump [stump pain]

Nasal coblation plasma surgery:

No specific code

CPT codes covered if selection criteria are met:

30801 - 30802 Ablation, soft tissue of inferior turbinates, unilateral or bilateral, any method (eg, electrocautery, radiofrequency ablation, or tissue volume reduction)

ICD-10 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all inclusive):

J30.1 - J30.9 Allergic rhinitis

Paravertebral nerve Coblation:

CPT codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB:

64633 Destruction by neurolytic agent, paravertebral facet joint nerve(s), with imaging guidance (fluoroscopy or CT); cervical or thoracic, single facet joint
+64634 Destruction by neurolytic agent, paravertebral facet joint nerve(s), with imaging guidance (fluoroscopy or CT); cervical or thoracic, each additional facet joint

ICD-10 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all inclusive):

M79.2 Neuralgia and neuritis, unspecified


Standard electro-surgical tools and lasers remove tissue by thermal energy.  Other methods of tissue decomposition have evolved to try to address the problems associated with high heat and damage to the surrounding tissue.

Coblation is a new surgical method for removing soft tissue during arthroscopic surgery developed by ArthroCare Corporation (Sunnyvale, CA).  Coblation is a method of non-thermal volumetric tissue removal through molecular dissociation, similar to that of excimer lasers.  Coblation uses the electrically conductive fluid employed in arthroscopic surgeries in the gap between the electrode and tissue.  When electrical current is applied to this fluid, it turns into a charged layer of particles, called a plasma layer.  Charged particles accelerate through the plasma and gain sufficient energy to break the molecular bonds within cells.  This causes the cells to disintegrate molecule by molecule, so that tissue is volumetrically removed.

Coblation-assisted surgery uses a continuous mode of operation rather than the pulsed mode required for lasers.  The purpose of a continuous mode of operation is to allow for coagulation of smaller blood vessels, and when used in sub-ablation mode, the intent is to produce hemostasis in larger vessels as well as shrinkage of collagen.  Coblation uses a relatively low-temperature plasma, compared with lasers of high-power density beam of photons with their subsequent heat production.  Because Coblation uses a low-temperature, the intent is to decrease the risk for thermal damage to surrounding tissues.  ArthroCare believes Coblation will provide a more precise operative result, reduce surgical time, speed recovery and reduce post-operative pain.  However, these claims are not supported by well controlled randomized studies.

Coblation devices such as the Topaz Microdebrider (ArthroCare, Sunnyvale, CA) are also being studied for their use in treating musculoskeletal conditions.  In a prospective, non-randomized consecutive case series, Tasto and colleagues (2005) assessed the safety and effectiveness of microtenotomy using a radiofrequency (RF) probe to treat chronic tendinosis of the common extensor tendon origins of the elbow (lateral epicondyle).  The average age of the 13 patients was 48.3 +/- 5.5 years.  Before receiving the microtenotomy, all patients had tendinosis symptoms for 6 months or longer and had failed conservative treatment.  The RF-based microdebridement was performed on the symptomatic tendon using the Topaz Microdebrider device.  Patients were followed-up at regular post-operative intervals for 24 months.  Pain status was documented using a visual analog scale self-reported measure.  Functional outcome was assessed using the upper limb DASH evaluation and grip-strength measures.  Quality of life assessment was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire.  Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at regular intervals over the follow-up period.  Patients reported significantly reduced pain from baseline at the 7- to 10-day post-operative examination (p < or = 0.01).  Pain reduction was statistically stable from 7 to 10 days through the 24-month post-operative period (p < or = 0.01).  Limb-specific functional outcomes and quality of life scores were improved over baseline values.  There were no peri-operative or post-operative complications related to the procedure.  The authors concluded that the RF-based microtenotomy procedure was safe and effective through at least 2 years.  This procedure provides a valuable addition for treating patients with lateral epicondylitis associated with tendinosis who have failed conservative therapy.  This was a small, short-term, non-randomized study; its findings need to be validated by future prospective randomized studies with large sample sizes and longer follow-up.  In addition, evidence is needed regarding the effectiveness of this approach compared to established methods of management of these musculoskeletal conditions.

There is insufficient evidence in the medical literature to support the use of Coblation non-thermal volumetric tissue reduction for removing soft tissue during arthroscopic surgery or for treating musculoskeletal conditions.

On the other hand, there is evidence to support the use of Coblation tonsillectomy.  In a double-blind, randomized controlled study, Arya et al (2003) compared post-operative pain following Coblation tonsillotomy versus Coblation tonsillectomy.  No statistically significant difference in pain was demonstrated in the group of 14 patients studied.  Nevertheless, the authors recommended tonsillectomy over tonsillotomy.  Furthermore, in a study to measure the benefits of Coblation tonsillectomy (n = 844) against traditional tonsillectomy (n = 743), Belloso et al (2003) concluded that Coblation tonsillectomy was associated with a lesser incidence of delayed hemorrhage, more significantly in the pediatric population.  The new technique using tissue Coblation for tonsil dissection offers significant advantages in the post-operative period compared with dissection tonsillectomy with bipolar diathermy hemostasis.  Coblation is associated with less post-operative pain and early return to daily activities.  Also, there are fewer secondary infections of the tonsil bed and significantly lower rates of secondary hemorrhage with Coblation.

In a prospective, controlled single-blind study, Stoker et al (2004) compared post-operative recovery after tonsillectomy using Coblation excision (CES, n = 44) or conventional electro-surgery (ES, n = 45).  The authors concluded that children who received CES tonsillectomy appeared to experience a better quality post-operative course, with no detriment to operative benefits of conventional ES.

A review by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2003) recommended Coblation tonsillectomy for the following indications:
  1. recurrent or chronic tonsillar infection,
  2. tonsillar hypertrophy leading to respiratory symptoms or airway obstruction,
  3. peri-tonsillar abscess, and
  4. recurrent middle ear infection where tonsillar hypertrophy is believed to be an exacerbating factor. 
Subsequent guidance from NICE (2005) concluded that "[c]urrent evidence on the safety and efficacy of electrosurgery (diathermy and coblation) for tonsillectomy appears adequate to support the use of these techniques, provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audity, and clinical governance."

A Cochrane evidence review (Burton and Doree, 2007) concluded that, "In terms of postoperative pain and speed and safety of recovery, there is inadequate evidence to determine whether coblation tonsillectomy is better or worse than other methods of tonsillectomy.  Evidence from a large prospective audit suggests that it has been associated with a higher level of morbidity, in terms of postoperative bleeding.  Large, well-designed randomised controlled trials supplemented by data from large prospective audits are needed to produce information on effectiveness and morbidity respectively."

Freeman and Mehdian (2008) evaluated the evidence for 3 minimally invasive methods in the treatment of discogenic low back pain (LBP) and radicular pain:
  1. intra-discal electrothermal therapy (IDET),
  2. percutaneous discectomy, and
  3. Coblation nucleoplasty.  An electronic search of the literature carried out using the Cochrane Library database (2007) and Medline (1966 to 2007) identified 77 references relating to IDET, 363 to percutaneous discectomy, and 36 to nucleoplasty. 
Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed the effectiveness of IDET; 1 demonstrated a positive effect on pain severity only, whereas the other demonstrated no substantial benefit.  Other RCTs showed that percutaneous intra-discal RF thermocoagulation is ineffective for the treatment of discogenic LBP.  Trials of automated percutaneous discectomy suggested that clinical outcomes after treatment are at best fair and often worse when compared with microdiscectomy.  There are no published RCTs assessing Coblation (ArthroCare Spine, Stockholm, Sweden) technology.

In an American Pain Society's clinical practice guideline on non-surgical interventional therapies for LBP, Chou et al (2009) noted that although use of certain interventional therapies is common or increasing, there is also uncertainty or controversy about their efficacy.  These investigators performed electronic database searches on Ovid Medline and the Cochrane databases through July 2008 to identify RCTs and systematic reviews of local injections, botulinum toxin injection, prolotherapy, epidural steroid injection, facet joint injection, therapeutic medial branch block, sacroiliac joint injection, intra-discal steroid injection, chemonucleolysis, RF denervation, IDET, percutaneous intra-discal RF thermocoagulation, Coblation nucleoplasty, and spinal cord stimulation.  All relevant studies were methodologically assessed by 2 independent reviewers using criteria developed by the Cochrane Back Review Group (for trials) and by Oxman (for systematic reviews).  A qualitative synthesis of results was performed using methods adapted from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.  For sciatica or prolapsed lumbar disc with radiculopathy, these researchers found good evidence that chemonucleolysis is moderately superior to placebo injection but inferior to surgery, and fair evidence that epidural steroid injection is moderately effective for short-term (but not long-term) symptom relief.  They found fair evidence that spinal cord stimulation is moderately effective for failed back surgery syndrome with persistent radiculopathy, though device-related complications are common.  They also found good or fair evidence that prolotherapy, facet joint injection, intra-discal steroid injection, and percutaneous intra-discal RF thermocoagulation are not effective.  Insufficient evidence exists to reliably evaluate other interventional therapies.  The authors concluded that few non-surgical interventional therapies for LBP have been shown to be effective in RCTs.

Sean et al (2010) stated that microtenotomy coblation using a RF probe is a minimally invasive procedure for treating chronic tendinopathy.  It has been described for conditions including tennis elbow and rotator cuff tendinitis.  There have been no studies to show the effectiveness of such a procedure for plantar fasciitis.  In this case-serieis study, a total of 14 patients with plantar fasciitis who had failed conservative treatment underwent TOPAZ RF treatment for their symptoms.  The RF-based microdebridement was performed using the TOPAZ Microdebrider device (ArthroCare, Sunnyvale, CA).  There were 6 men and 8 women with an average age of 44.0 years (23 to 57).  There were 15 feet, with 6 right and 9 left feet.  Subjects were followed-up for up to 6 months thereafter.  Pre-operative, 3 and 6 months post-operative AOFAS ankle-hindfoot and SF-36 scores were analysed.  There was a significant improvement in mean pre-operative, post-operative 3- and 6-month AOFAS hindfoot scores from 34.47 to 69.27 and 71.33 (p = 0.00), respectively.  There was a significant decrease in SF-36 for bodily pain, and significant increases in physical and social function scores.  Overall, 12 out of 14 (85.7 %) patients reported good to excellent satisfaction results at 6 months, and 12 out of 14 (85.7 %) patients have had their expectations met from the procedure at 6 months follow-up.  The authors concluded that TOPAZ RF coblation is a good and effective method for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. T hey stated that these early results are encouraging, and they will continue to evaluate the patients over a longer follow-up period.

Dasenbrock and colleagues (2012) stated that plasma mediated RF ablation (pmRFA) may allow for the percutaneous treatment of spinal tumors with a decreased risk of thermal injury to neural structures compared with traditional (RF or interstitial laser) ablation.  However, usage of pmRFA has not been previously reported for a primary bone tumor, including an osteoid osteoma.  In this small study, 3 patients with a spinal osteoid osteoma underwent pmRFA.  The procedure was performed under computed tomography guidance using the 11-gauge Coblation SpineWand (ArthroCare).  One lesion (at T11) was directly abutting the spinal canal.  With an average follow-up of 20.7 (range of 16 to 24) months, the mean visual analog scale score for back pain decreased from 8.67 to 0.67 and no patient experienced tumor recurrence.  The authors concluded that pmRFA of spinal osteoid osteomas is feasible, even when the tumor is abutting the spinal canal.  Moreover, they stated that larger studies with a longer follow-up are needed to further delineate the safety and effectiveness of this technique.

Pierson et al (2012) presented 2 cases of advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) to illustrate the advantages of endoscopic Coblation-assisted resection of intra-nasal extensions of these masses.  Both patients (an 11-year old boy and a 14-year old boy) presented with a large, extensive mass (Radkowski stage IIIb and Fisch stage IVb in both cases).  After embolization was performed on each patient, his JNA was partially ablated via an endoscopic approach with the Coblator II Surgery System with an EVac Xtra Plasma Wand in conjunction with an image-guided navigation system.  Both patients experienced resolution of their nasal obstruction with removal of the intra-nasal extension of the tumor.  Coblation allowed for a controlled debulking of the tumors with less blood loss and without the need for multiple instruments.  To the best of their knowledge, the authors’ report was one of the first to describe image-guided endoscopic Coblation of advanced JNA tumors.  They stated that future studies in adequately sized populations are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of Coblation-assisted endoscopic removal of both advanced and lower-stage JNAs.

In a prospective, open-label, non-randomized trial, Di Rienzo Businco evaluated the effectiveness of adding Coblation-assisted inferior turbinoplasty to a medical treatment regimen for symptoms associated with hypertrophic inferior turbinates.  Patients were assigned to treatment groups in order of enrolment into the study.  From June 2007 to June 2008, a total 220 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and hypertrophic inferior turbinates were enrolled and assigned into 2 groups:
  1. the surgical group who received radiofrequency thermal ablation inferior turbinoplasty and medical therapy, and
  2. the medical group who received medical therapy only.
Groups were further divided into 2 allergen types based on antigen sensitivity: perennial and seasonal.  Subjective complaints (nasal obstruction, itching, rhinorrhea, sneezing), clinical rhinoendoscopy and rhinomanometry tests results were recorded at the start of the study and 2 months post-treatment.  Effect sizes for the mean improvements after treatment were tabulated for all groups.  All study outcomes improved within all groups.  Comparison between medical and surgical groups showed higher improvement in both perennial and seasonal, respectively, in nasal obstruction, sneezing, rhinomanometry, and rhinomanometry after nasal provocation test (NPT).  Itching improved only in perennial allergen type.  Rhinoendoscopy clinical score showed improvement in surgical group over medical group in both allergen types.  The authors concluded that Coblation-assisted turbinate reduction is a promising adjunct to medical therapy in patients with persistent symptoms associated with AR.  Patients undergoing this surgery had greater reduction of symptoms than patients receiving medical therapy alone, where patients with perennial allergies appeared to benefit most.

Li and colleagues (2013) examined the therapeutic effect of nasal Coblation plasma surgery for the treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR).  A total of 100 patients with mite-sensitized moderate to severe PAR who underwent nasal Coblation plasma surgery (inferior turbinoplasty plus nasal agger ablation) were enrolled in this study.  There were 68 males and 32 females patients aged 16 to 62 years (mean of 36.3 years).  The visual analog scale (VAS) for global rhinitis symptoms, NPT, anterior rhinomanometry, and T&T olfactometry were used to assess the short-term outcomes, pre-operatively and post-operatively at the end of 3 months after surgical procedure.  SPSS19.0 software was applied for statistical analysis.  At 3months after treatment, the total nasal symptom VAS scores significantly decreased from 7.0 ± 2.0 to 2.5 ± 1.5 (X(-) ± s; t = 18.00, p = 0.0001).  All patients were allergic to house dust mites with positive NPT before treatment.  At 3 months from the Coblation intervention, 88.0 % of the patients changed from positive NPT to negative, while 12.0 % remained as positive.  There was a significant reduction in total nasal resistance, which diminished from 0.772 ± 0.224 to 0.221 ± 0.112 kPa·s·L(-1) after treatment (t = 22.00, p = 0.0001).  Pre-operative olfactory tests showed hyposmia in 31.0 % of the patients, with 22 cases for slight and 9 cases for moderate disorder.  Three months after treatment, 13.0 % were diagnosed as hyposmic, with 7 cases for slight and 6 cases for moderate disorder (χ(2) = 10.44, p = 0.005).  The authors concluded that nasal Coblation plasma surgery provided favorable short-term outcomes in terms of remarkable improvement in nasal symptoms, hyper-reactivity of nasal mucosa, nasal flow and olfactory function in patients with moderate to severe PAR, but long-term effect needed further observation.

Coblation-Assisted Surgical Resection for the Treatment of Rhinosporidiosis

Khan et al (2014) stated that rhinosporidiosis seeberi causes a chronic granulomatous disease of upper airway, usually involving the nose and nasopharynx, and has a notorious tendency to reoccur.  The current line of management is surgical excision of the lesion along with cauterization of the base, which does not prevent reoccurrence of the disease.  Coblation EVAC 70 is a novel surgical tool which seems to provide excellent option in management of this notorious disease.  These researchers presented an interesting case and the innovative approach in its management, using Coblation system.  A 65-year old male resident of rural India reported a history of breathing difficulty and change in voice.  Patient is a Hindu priest by profession, who according to their rituals has to take bath in local pond or river.  The authors concluded that rhinosporidiosis is a difficult-to-treat pathology due to its tendency to reoccur.  To-date the management of the disease is far from satisfactory.   They stated that the Coblation system, which has already found its roots in otorhinolaryngology, can be used as a novel tool in surgical resection of recurrent rhinosporidiosis and has added advantage of low temperature dissection along with clear surgical field due to constant suctioning.  These preliminary findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Endoscopic Coblation Cauterization for the Treatment of Pyriform Sinus Fistula

Zhang and Tian (2016) stated that recurrent neck lesions associated with 3rd or 4rth branchial arch fistula are much less common than those of 2nd arch and usually present with acute suppurative thyroiditis or neck abscess.  These investigators described clinical features, management and treatment outcomes of 64 cases of congenital pyriform sinus fistula (PSF).  Medical record of these 64 patients (33 males, 31 females) treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed.  The patients comprised 33 males and 31 females, and their ages ranged from 18 months to 47 years (median of 10 years, mean of 12.7 years).  Neck abscess and recurrent infection was the mode of presentation in 37 cases (57.8 %), 4 patients (6.3 %) presented with acute suppurative thyroiditis, neck mass was the mode of presentation in 17 cases (26.6 %), 2 patients (3.1 %) presented with neck mass with respiratory distress, and cutaneous discharging fistula was the mode of presentation in 1 cases (1.6 %).  The remaining 3 patients (4.7 %) presented with cutaneous discharging fistula with neck infection.  Investigations performed include barium swallow, computed tomography (CT) scan, and ultrasound, which were useful in delineating PSF tract pre-operatively.  Barium swallow was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis.  Patients were treated by fistulectomy with hemi-thyroidectomy, fistulectomy, fistulectomy with endoscopic electric cauterization, endoscopic electric cauterization or endoscopic Coblation cauterization, respectively.  Histopathologic examination of the surgical specimens revealed that they were lined with ciliated epithelium, stratified cuboid epithelium with chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis.  Voice hoarseness occurred after operation in 7 patients, but disappeared 1 week later.  Pyriform sinus fistula recurred in 6 patients, 4 of them were cured by a successful re-excision.  One patient was cured by successful endoscopic electric cauterization.  The other 1 has remained asymptomatic for 5 months.  In this series, mean follow-up period was 13.3 months and median follow-up period was 12.5 months (range of 2 to 40 months).  Presence of congenital PSF should be suspected when intra-thyroidal abscess formation occurs as the gland is resistant to infection.  Strong clinical suspicion, barium swallow study, CT scan and ultrasound are the key to diagnosis.  Both fistulectomy with hemi-thyroidectomy and endoscopic treatment have comparable success rate.  The authors stated that endoscopic Coblation cauterization may prove a useful and equally effective method of treatment for PSF in future.

Coblation of Femoral and Sciatic Nerve for Stump Pain and Phantom Limb Pain

Zeng and colleagues (2016) noted that there is currently no reliable treatment for stump pain and phantom limb pain. Peripheral factors play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stump pain and phantom limb pain.  Coblation technology is a relatively new technology that has shown promise in treating neuropathic pain.  In a case report, these researchers described the use of Coblation on femoral and sciatic nerve for stump pain and phantom limb pain.  An ultrasound-guided perineural infiltration anesthesia surrounding the neuroma was first performed and achieved approximately 60 % stump pain relief that lasted for 2 hours, but no relief of the phantom limb pain.  An ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve block was performed to obtain longer pain relief.  The patient reported approximately 80 % pain relief in both stump pain and phantom limb pain that lasted for 40 hours.  This finding suggested other factors in addition to the ultrasound-detected neuroma in the residual limb generating pain for this patient.  Coblation of femoral and sciatic nerves was performed.  The stump pain was completely relieved immediately after operation.  At 1, 3, and 6 months post-operative review, 80 % relief of both stump and phantom limb pain was achieved.  Overall activity was improved and there was no need for pain medications.  The analgesic effect was stable during the 6-month follow-up period.  The authors concluded that their findings suggested that Coblation may be useful in the treatment for stump pain and phantom limb pain; treatments focusing on peripheral nerves may be more effective than those focusing on the neuroma.  They stated that additional investigation is needed to confirm these findings.

Radiofrequency Coblation of Congenital Nasopharyngeal Teratoma

Hwang and associates (2015) stated that congenital nasopharyngeal teratomas are rare tumors that pose difficulties in diagnosis and surgical management. These investigators reported the first use of radio-frequency (RF) Coblation in the management of such tumors.  They presented the findings of a premature baby (with a perinatal diagnosis of a large, obstructing nasooropharyngeal mass) who was referred to the ENT service for further investigations and management.  The initial biopsy was suggestive of a neuroblastoma, but the tumor demonstrated rapid growth despite appropriate chemotherapy.  In a novel use of RF Coblation, the nasooropharyngeal mass was completely excised, with the final histopathology revealing a congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma.  The authors reported the first use of RF Coblation to excise a congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma.  These preliminary findings need to be validated by additional studies.

Cervical Coblation Nucleoplasty for the Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache

He and associates (2016) stated that a degenerative cervical disc is a pain generator for headaches, and headaches can benefit from cervical prolapse surgery.  However, as an alternative intervention for open cervical surgery, no study has reported whether headaches can benefit from cervical nucleoplasty.  In a prospective cohort study, these researchers evaluated the effectiveness of cervical Coblation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervicogenic headaches (CEHs).  A total of 20 patients with CEHs undergoing cervical nucleoplasty for shoulder-arm pain were recruited into group C, and 20 patients with CEHs undergoing lumbar nucleoplasty for LBP, matched for age and sex, were recruited into group L.  Cervicogenic pain was diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria.  During the 24-month follow-up, pain VAS scores were collected as the primary outcomes, and significant pain relief rate, Neck Disability Index (NDI) headache scores, and Patients Satisfaction Index (PSI) scores were recorded as secondary outcomes to evaluate headache severity and physical function post-operatively.  During the 24-month follow-up, a significant decrease in headache VAS scores was observed in group C, but not in group L; NDI and PSI scores in group C were better than those in group L.  In comparison with the final follow-up, no significant differences in the NDI and PSI scores were found in all observations after surgery.  In comparison to group L, greater than or equal to 50 % pain relief was significantly better in group C.  No serious complications were observed except for less than or equal to 20 % of ecchymoma at the needle insertion site.  The authors concluded that the findings of this study indicated that CEHs may benefit from cervical Coblation nucleoplasty.

The authors noted that this study had 2 major drawbacks:
  1. t ignored the notion that the upper cervical discs C2 to C3/C3 to C4 were also potential sources of the headaches.  This was related to the study design.  According to the inclusion criteria, all subjects with CEHs were recruited from a group of patients who had undergone nucleoplasty for discogenic or radicular pain in the neck, shoulder, or arm, which mostly originated from lower degenerative cervical discs, and
  2. the outcomes derived from this study did not indicate that CEH without discogenic or radicular pain can benefit from cervical nucleoplasty.  
This needs to be investigated in additional studies.  However, compared with discogenic or radicular pain, there are no gold standard diagnostic criteria of CEH for nucleoplasty, which results in difficulties in enrolling subjects.

Coblation-Assisted Management of Airway Stenosis

In a retrospective, case-series study, Fastenberg and colleagues (2016) evaluated the use of bipolar RF plasma ablation (Coblation) in the treatment of pediatric airway stenosis.  The medical records of 6 pediatric patients at Cohen Children's Medical Center from July 2009 to December 2015 were reviewed.  All cases involved the use of RF plasma ablation to address airway stenosis.  Patient presentation, surgical intervention(s), post-operative course and complications were analyzed.  All 6 cases involved pediatric airway stenosis, including glottic stenosis (n = 2), bilateral vocal fold immobility (n = 2), and intra-tracheal lesions (n = 2).  Coblation was used to perform a range of different procedures, including removal of scar/granulation tissue, partial arytenoidectomy, and posterior cordectomy.  All patients experienced good results without major complications, peri-operative, or post-operative sequelae.  The authors concluded that the findings of this study suggest that RF plasma ablation may be an effective endoscopic tool for the treatment of pediatric airway stenosis.  Moreover, they stated that further study and more patients are needed as this technique becomes increasingly applied.

Coblation Nasal Septal Swell Body Reduction for the Treatment of Nasal Obstruction

In a retrospective, case-series study, Kim and associates (2016) presented the results of Coblation nasal septal swell body (NSB) reduction for the treatment of nasal obstruction in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.  The study was conducted at a single tertiary medical center; 8 patients underwent Coblation NSB reduction.  Pre-operative and post-operative nasal functions were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry and subjective symptom scales.  These researchers also analyzed pre-operative CT scan images and nasal endoscopic findings.  The mean maximal NSB width was 16.4 ± 2.2 mm on pre-operative coronal CT scan images.  The mean VAS score for nasal obstruction was decreased from pre-operative 7.63 ± 0.99 points to 3.88 ± 0.92 points (post-operative 3 months), 4.16 ± 0.78 points (post-operative 6 months), and 4.63 ± 0.69 points (post-operative 1 year); 6 of the 8 patients were satisfied with the clinical outcome at 1 year after the procedure.  The authors stated that, to the best of their knowledge, Coblation NSB reduction has not yet been reported in the medical literature; these findings showed that it can be an effective treatment modality for nasal valve narrowing in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.  However, these preliminary findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Percutaneous Thoracic Paravertebral Nerve Coblation for the Treatment of Thoracic Neuropathic Pain

Yang an colleagues (2017) noted that patients with thoracic neuropathic pain often do not respond to medication and physical therapy.  Coblation technology has been demonstrated to have potential for pain management.  A total of 15 patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous Coblation to ablate the thoracic paravertebral nerve for their medication-resistant thoracic neuropathic pain.  The pain intensity was assessed by VAS 1 day before surgery and 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, and the difference between pre-operative and post-operative VAS values was determined to evaluate the pain relief effectiveness.  Patients who achieved greater than 50 % pain relief were defined as responders and the ratio in all patients was calculated.  The number of patients who reported mild pain (VAS less than or equal to 3) was recorded and the ratio in all responders was calculated.  In addition, adverse events (AEs) were also recorded to examine the security of procedure; 12 (80 %) responders achieved greater than 50 % pain relief.  The VAS score of responders significantly decreased from 7.42 ± 1.38 before surgery to 2.17 ± 1.11 (p = 0.000), 1.92 ± 1.16 (p = 0.000), 1.75 ± 0.97 (p = 0.000), and 1.58 ± 1.08 (p = 0.000) at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery, respectively.  The number of responders with mild pain was 10 (83.3 %), 11 (91.7 %), 12 (100 %), and 12 (100 %) at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery, respectively.  All responders and 1 non-responder reported slight numbness after the surgery.  The authors concluded that CT-guided percutaneous thoracic paravertebral nerve Coblation is a potential method for the treatment of thoracic neuropathic pain.  These preliminary findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Radiofrequency Coblation for the Treatment of Glottis Cancer

Liu and colleagues (2016) evaluated the feasibility, complications, and effectiveness of low-temperature (40 to 70° C) RF Coblation as a treatment modality for the early-stage glottic cancer.  These investigators presented the data obtained from a 1-year study ofT1 glottic cancer patients treated at their department.  A total of 6 early-stage glottic cancer (Tla = 5; Tlb = 1) patients (male; mean age of 60.1 years) were enrolled in this study.  Study outcomes were analyzed (noted and/or photographed).  All patients were able to eat on the next day after the surgery.  No gastric tube or tracheotomy was required.  No post-operative cough, discomfort or difficult breathing was noted.  No complications, such as recurrence or cervical lymph node metastasis, occurred over the 6 to 12 months follow-up.  All patients regained satisfactory voice 2 months after the surgery.  The authors concluded that due to the small number of patients included in this study, these findings need to be taken only as the preliminary data that need to be further validated by large-cohort multi-center studies.  Furthermore, RFA surgery has a few disadvantages as well.  For instance, due to the scalpel tip design, this technique may not be applicable for certain sites such as subglottic and anterior commissure tumors without compromising safe margins.  Nonetheless, with the modified tip types, such as the ones with more angles available or smaller sizes, doing more accurate surgery will be possible.  This study was also limited by a short post-operative follow-up period (up to 12 months).

Coblation for Wounds Debridement / Management

Trial et al (2012) noted that debridement is needed to prepare the wound bed, essentially in removing undesired tissues observed both in acute wound after burns or trauma and in chronic wounds (e.g., diabetic foot ulcers, leg ulcers, and pressure ulcers).  Surgical debridement has been described as one of the most effective methods but can be contraindicated in the elderly, arteriopathic context, or patients under effective anti-coagulation.  Recently described debridement technologies are based on application of important mechanical severing forces over the wound surface using high-power hydrojets.  High water flux acts as a vector for separating necrotic and sloughy tissues from the wound bed and aspirates them out of the wound immediately.  Electrical powered techniques and lasers were also scarcely described.  The Coblation debridement technology presented here was based on the local induction of a focused plasma field chemically deleting undesired tissues.  This technique is a modification of conventional electro-surgical devices, developed in 1928 where tissue excision and coagulation of tissues were observed.  Principles of plasma-mediated debridement were based on a bipolar radiofrequency energizing the molecules, thus creating a plasma field.  This glow discharge plasma produces chemically active radical species from dissociation of water, breaking molecular bonds, and causing tissue dissolution.  The thermal effects are a by-product, which can be modulated by modifying the electrode construction, limiting the local temperature to less than 50°C in order not to induce wound bed re-necrosis.  The authors described the principle, the first technical adaptation for wound debridement, and the potential clinical interest of the Coblation technology.  Well-designed studies are needed to develop clinical evidence of Coblation technology for surgical wound debridement.

Bekara and colleagues (2018) noted that debridement is a crucial component of wound management.  Recent technologies such as hydrosurgery (Versajet), ultrasound therapy (the MIST therapy device), or plasma-mediated bipolar RFA therapy (Coblation) appeared to represent interesting alternatives for wound debridement.  These investigators evaluated and compared these 3 recently developed methods for the management of chronic wounds.  In January 2016, an electronic database search was conducted of Medline, PubMed Central, and Embase for articles concerning these 3 innovative methods for the management of chronic wounds.  A total of 389 references were identified by the search strategy, and 15 articles were included.  These researchers extracted data regarding the number and age of patients, indications, operating time, number of procedures, costs, wound healing time, decrease in exudation, peri-operative blood loss, bacterial load, and the occurrence of complications.  The 15 articles included studies that involved a total of 563 patients who underwent hydrosurgery (7 studies), ultrasound therapy (6 studies), or Coblation (2 studies); 6 RCTs were included that compared the use of a scalpel or curette to hydrosurgery (2 studies) or ultrasound therapy (6 studies).  Hydrosurgery, in addition to being a very precise and selective tool, allowed significantly faster debridement.  Ultrasound therapy provided a significant reduction of exudation, and improved the wound healing time.  No comparative study dedicated to Coblation was identified.  The authors concluded that the review of the current literature revealed a lack of prospective randomized studies comparing these devices with each other or with standard techniques, particularly for Coblation and hydrosurgery.

Coblation of Soft Tissue Stenosis of the External Auditory Canal

Gu and Bauman (2017) noted that soft tissue occlusion of the external auditory canal (EAC) can cause intense pruritis, recurrent foul smelling otorrhea, recurrent otitis externa, and conductive hearing loss.  Occlusion of the EAC can be challenging to treat as the area is prone to circumferential scarring.  These researchers described the novel use of serial bipolar RFA (Coblation) to treat 3 children with complete EAC occlusion from congenital and acquired conditions including lymphedema (n = 1), microcystic lymphatic malformation (n = 1), and venolymphatic malformation (n = 1).  Patients underwent a mean of 3 procedures with post-operative EAC stenting (7 days) and antibiotic and steroid aural preparations (10 days).  Otologic symptoms resolved in all patients, and their EACs remained patent 14 months after last procedure (range of 4 to 32 months); 1 patient experienced a pinpoint tympanic membrane perforation that healed spontaneously 2 weeks later.  The authors concluded that Coblation of soft tissue stenosis of the EAC can be an effective treatment for this problematic condition.  These preliminary findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Cordotomy by Coblation for the Treatment of Vocal Fold Immobility

Benninger and associates (2018) stated that bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) can result in considerable voice and airway impairment.  Although the CO2 laser is commonly used in transverse cordotomy, the Coblator, a minimally invasive, low-thermal technology, has been increasingly used in otolaryngology.  In a retrospective, case-series study, these investigators examined outcomes associated with Coblation to treat BVFI.  This trial included 19 patients with BVFI who underwent cordotomy by Coblation in a single tertiary-care institution.  Clinical, operative, and health status data for all patients were reviewed.  Quality of life (QOL) was measured by the EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) was used to measure vocal cord function.  A total of 19 patients were eligible for inclusion, 15 of which underwent cordotomy by Coblation for BVFI without stenosis.  Mean age was 57 years with 13 (68 %) women.  The etiology of BVFI included thyroidectomy in 8 (42 %) patients and prolonged intubation in 7 (37 %).  Mean length of surgery for BVFI without stenosis was 17 minutes; mean operating room (OR) time was 63 minutes compared with 88 scheduled OR minutes (effect size, 25 minutes; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 9 to 40 minutes).  During follow-up, 4 (27 %) of these patients developed granulation tissue post-operatively.  Following surgery, patient-reported shortness of breath significantly improved, with 10 of 14 (71 %; 95 % CI: 45 % to 88 %) patients with some level of pre-operative breathing difficulty experiencing improvement in their breathing.  Stridor also significantly improved, with 10 of 12 (83 %; 95 % CI: 55 % to 95 %) patients with some level of pre-operative stridor improved after surgery.  The EQ-5D results trended toward improvement post-operatively (0.67 to 0.80; effect size, 0.13; 95 % CI: -0.10 to 0.34).  The functional (22 to 12; effect size, -10; 95 % CI: -19 to -2), emotional (23 to 11; effect size, -12; 95 % CI: -23 to -3), and total VHI all significantly improved (68 to 39; effect size, -29; 95 % CI: -49 to -8).  The authors concluded that initial outcomes of cordotomy by Coblation revealed that this technique was a safe and efficient approach to treating BVFI; Coblation was associated with significant reduction in OR time compared with scheduled time, and patients experienced significant improvement in shortness of breath, stridor, and vocal cord function.  These preliminary findings from a small (n = 15), retrospective study need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Laryngeal Papillomatosis

In a retrospective case-series study, Carney et al (2010) examined the effectiveness of RF cold ablation (Coblation) for the treatment of laryngo-tracheal recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, by comparing treatment intervals for coblation and carbon dioxide (CO2) laser vaporization.  A total of 6 adult patients with advanced laryngo-tracheal recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were treated for at least 2 years by CO2 laser vaporization with or without intra-lesional cidofovir.  All 6 subsequently underwent treatment with RF Coblation with or without intra-lesional cidofovir.  Coblation resulted in longer periods between interventions, compared with CO2 laser (p = 0.03).  The authors concluded that RF Coblation appeared to be an attractive alternative technique to CO2 laser for the surgical treatment of advanced laryngo-tracheal papillomata.  The findings of this small study need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Awad and colleagues (2019) stated that recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a disease caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), which is frequently localized in the larynx.  The disease tends to recur and frequent intervention is often needed.  Management modules include surgical intervention using micro-debride or laser ablation as well as adjuvant treatments that aim mainly at maintaining an adequate airway and secondly to manage dysphonia caused by the growth on the vocal folds.  In a pilot study, another surgical modality is tried using plasma-mediated RF ablation (Coblation).  These researchers examined management of 15 adult patients diagnosed with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis and surgically treated using RF Coblation; 1 patient needed multiple procedures.  Pre-operative assessment in voice clinic evaluating voice quality and its impact on patients' life-quality using voice parameters and self-assessment questionnaires.  Follow-up post-operatively using the same parameters from 4 to 6 weeks after surgery until up to 2 years later to check recurrence rate.  No other adjuvant treatment was used and all patients received post-operative voice therapy.  A total of 78.6 % of patients did not show evidence of recurrence during the study period.  Improvement in voice handicap following 1st intervention was reported and recurrence rate in the rest of the sample reported.  The authors concluded that the findings of this small sample (n = 15) appeared to support the previous small studies' findings that RF Coblation is a good excisional technique to use for removal of laryngeal papillomatosis; recurrence rates appeared to be slightly lower than rates reported in the literature for the other surgical modalities.  Level of evidence = IV.

Radiofrequency Coblation for the Treatment of Laryngeal Cancer

Gong and colleagues (2019) examined the safety, efficacy and prognosis of low-temperature plasma RF Coblation for early-stage laryngeal cancer(Tis, T1 and T2).  These researchers carried out a retrospective analysis of 202 patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer who underwent the low-temperature RF Coblation surgery, including 34 cases of Tis (16.83 %), 49 cases of stage T1aN0M0 (24.26 %), 50 cases of stage T1bN0M0 (24.75 %) and 69 cases of stage T2N0M0 (34.16 %).  Surgical patients were followed-up closely for 6 to 60 months, with a median follow-up of 29 months.  Of the 202 patients,165 (81.68 %) had no recurrence and achieved good surgical results.  None of them suffered severe complications such as post-operative hemorrhage and asphyxia; 37 cases (18.32 %) had recurrence, including 1 case (0.50 %) in stage Tis, 7 cases (3.47 %) in stage T1a, 7 cases (3.47 %) in stage T1b, and 22 cases (10.89 %) in stage T2; 13 patients who had recurrence underwent total laryngectomy (5 of which had a recurrence of T3 and 8 of which progressed to T4), including 1 in the stage T1a,2 in the stage T1b, and 10 in the stage T2.  Vertical hemi-laryngectomy were performed in 4 cases, 3 cases of stage T1a and 1 case of stage T2; 5 cases underwent plasma RF Coblation again, including 3 cases of stage T1b and 2 cases of stage T2, no recurrence was found in all the patients; 1 patient had no obvious recurrence in the larynx but had cervical lymph node metastasis, radical neck dissection was performed; 1 patient with stage T2 recurrence was treated with a tracheotomy to relieve laryngeal obstruction without further treatment; 3 cases showed improvement by radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment after recurrence; 9 death cases, 5 patients died after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and 4 patients stopped getting treatment after recurrence.  The authors concluded that low-temperature RF Coblation surgery for patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer has great advantages in the preservation of laryngeal function and reduction of surgical trauma after surgery compared with traditional surgical method, and could obtain satisfactory results, but the selection of surgical indications for some patients with clinical stage T2 still needs to be carefully considered.

Furthermore, National Comprehensive Cancer Network’s clinical practice guideline on “Head and neck cancers” (Version 1.2019) does not mention radiofrequency Coblation as a therapeutic option.

Coblation Adenoidectomy

Singh and Bhardwaj (2020) stated that microdebrider adenoidectomy and Coblation adenoidectomy are the 2 new techniques available for adenoidectomy these days.  As adenoidectomy is one of the most common pediatric surgical procedure there is always a concern to improve the outcomes and make post-operative experience more pleasant for the pediatric population.  Cost difference between a Coblator wand and microdebrider blade is always a confounding factor in decision-making.  In a prospective, randomized, single-blind study, these researchers compared both techniques in terms of certain intra-operative and post-operative parameters.  This trial was carried out in a university hospital on 140 subjects.  Patients diagnosed with chronic adenoiditis grade 3 to 4 were randomly allocated to 2 groups after following the exclusion and inclusion criteria.  The adenoidectomy in 2 groups: the Microdebrider group (Group A) and the Coblation group (Group B) were compared in terms of intra-operative time, post-operative pain score; intra-operative bleeding, surgical field and some common complications.  Data were analyzed for significance by various statistical tests.  The average adenoid size operated in both groups was Grade-3.  The intra-operative time taken to complete the procedure in group A was 12.78 ± 3.8 mins and in group B was 22 ± 3.3 mins (p value < 0.05).  There was statistically significant difference in grade of Intra-operative Bleeding in both groups with mean grade of intra-operative bleeding being 1.4 ± 1.04 in group B and 3.5 ± 0.9 in Group A.  The surgical field was poor to average in 33 cases (n = 70) in group A as compared to only 1 case (n = 70) in group B; the difference being statistically significant.  The average post-operative pain score was 2.69 ± 0.99 and 1.17 ± 1.1 after post-operatively 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively in group B; 7.14 ± 0.99 and 4.08 ± 1.42, respectively in group A.  The p value for the same was < 0.05.  However there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups in terms of any complications or completeness of removal.  The authors concluded that although both techniques were highly effective in adenoid removal with low complication rate in this study, more studies with large sample size are needed to validate these findings and to establish the comparative efficacy of both techniques in terms of the intra-operative parameters as well as post-operative recovery along with recurrence rates.

Furthermore, an UpToDate review on “Tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy in children: Indications and contraindications” (Paradise and Wald, 2020) does not mention Coblation as a management/therapeutic option.

CT-Guided Gasserian Ganglion Nerve Coblation for Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

Yang and colleagues (2019) stated that trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe type of neuropathic pain that is often inadequately managed using conventional therapies.  These researchers presented the 1st case of TN treated with Gasserian ganglion nerve Coblation (NC).   The subject was a 58-year old man who presented with right facial pain, mostly localized in the right zygomatic zone, alveolar region, and jaws.  Similar to acupuncture and shock pain, the pain lasted about 5 seconds after each attack before resolving unaided.  A diagnosis of TN was made, after which treatment with acupuncture therapy and oral carbamazepine was given.  However, the pain was not satisfactorily controlled.  Subsequently, Gasserian ganglion NC of the right trigeminal nerve guided by CT was performed on the patient.  Following this procedure, the right zygomatic, alveolar, submandibular, and cheek pain disappeared completely. The right zygomatic and alveolar areas experienced mild numbness (level II).  At 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups after surgery, the patient was painless and the numbness score was level I.  The authors concluded that CT-guided Gasserian ganglion NC is a promising, effective treatment for TN and associated with minimal or non-post-operative numbness or hypoesthesia.

These researchers stated that as an emerging technology, NC for the treatment of TN has not been extensively studied globally.  This is a very promising minimally invasive interventional technique that holds multiple benefits to the patient not least because of effective pain control.  They stated that a larger patient sample and longer follow-up period are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of NC in the management of TN.

Percutaneous Disc Decompression with Coblation Nucleoplasty for the Treatment of Cervical Vertigo

Li and colleagues (2019) noted that surgical treatment of cervical vertigo has been rarely reported.  In a retrospective study, these researchers examined the clinical outcomes of percutaneous disc decompression with Coblation nucleoplasty (PDCN) for treatment of patients with cervical vertigo who have failed conservative care.  A total of 74 consecutive patients with cervical vertigo underwent PDCN and were followed for at least 1 year.  Outcome measures included the dizziness intensity VAS, dizziness frequency, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), and neck pain intensity.  Clinical efficacy was evaluated by rating scale and the modified MacNab evaluation criteria.  Surgical complications during the operation and follow-up were also recorded.  The vertigo VAS score, frequency of dizziness, DHI, and neck pain intensity were all decreased significantly from evaluation before surgery to 1 week after surgery and to the last follow-up, giving a mean effective rate of 94.6 % 1 week after surgery and 90.6 % at the last follow-up.  Good-to-excellent results were attained in 85.1 % of these patients 1 week after PDCN and in 75.7 % of the sufferers at the last follow-up (p < 0.001).  There were 5 patients with transient adverse effects (6.25 %) reported within the 1st month after surgery; they all recovered after conservative treatment.  No neurological complications were found and no patient went on to spinal fusion surgery thereafter.  The authors concluded that the clinical outcomes of PDCN for cervical vertigo were satisfactory in both the early and late post-operative period; PDCN was an effective, low-complication, minimally invasive procedure used to treat cervical vertigo.  Moreover, these researchers stated that further prospective RCTs are needed to validate this conclusion.  The authors stated that the main drawbacks of this study were that the rate of follow-up was 70 % and a placebo effect could not be excluded.  There is no gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical vertigo so far.

Videolaryngoscope-Assisted Coblation for Epiglottic Cysts

In a prospective, clinical series study, Meng and colleagues (2020) examined the safety and effectiveness of videolaryngoscope-assisted Coblation of epiglottic cysts (VACECs) under general anesthesia.  The pre-operative electronic flexible laryngoscopic or 70° rigid laryngeal endoscopic examination was performed to evaluate the location and size of ECs.  There was a periodical follow-up survey for all patients.  A total 28 of consecutive patients with ECs were enrolled in this trial, including 12 men and 16 women, with an average age of 55 years (range of 24 to 78).  Subjects’ medical history ranged from half a month to 2 years.  The size of the cyst ranged from 0.8 to 1.5 cm.  All patients were cured without pharyngeal or systemic complications.  Loosening of anterior teeth occurred in 5 patients (17.9 %).  Specimen pathology confirmed the diagnosis in all patients.  No recurrence was found after more than 6-month follow-up.  The authors concluded that VACECs brought together the advantages of Coblation and videolaryngoscope.  These researchers stated that videolaryngoscope-assisted Coblation is a simple, safe and feasible procedure for patients with ECs and is worthy of clinical application.  These preliminary findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Coblation Annuloplasty for the Treatment of Cervical Discogenic Pain

He and colleagues (2020) noted that the nerve fibers innervating the annulus fibrosus are the major origin of degeneration-associated discogenic pain.  Coblation is a tissue-dissociating technique in which the nerve fibers in the degenerative disc tissue are ablated.  These researchers hypothesized that Coblation annuloplasty would be an effective approach for the treatment of cervical discogenic pain without radiculopathy.  They examined the effectiveness of Coblation annuloplasty in the treatment of patients with cervical discogenic pain without radiculopathy.  A total of 40 patients diagnosed with cervical discogenic pain without radiculopathy were screened for Coblation annuloplasty.  The patient-rated VAS score for pain, significant pain relief rate, and Modified MacNab pain-relieving effect were adopted to examine the therapeutic effect within a 1-year follow-up period.  A total of 33 patients completed the study.  The average pain duration was 4.6 ± 1.6 years (range of 0.5 to 8 years).  The mean VAS pain score decreased from pre-operative 6.8 ± 0.9 to post-operative 2.5 ± 1.3 (p < 0.01).  For all subjects, the immediate pain relief rate was 78.7 % (26/33), which continued to post-operative 6 months.  One year later, 22 (66.6 %) subjects reported that their pain was significantly alleviated.  According to the Modified MacNab criteria, 63.6 to 82.1 % of participants considered the effect of surgery for their pain therapy as "excellent" during the 1-year follow-up period.  No significant complications such as hemorrhage, paresthesia, or infection were observed.  The authors concluded that this study was the 1st to demonstrate that Coblation annuloplasty was an effective approach in providing significant alleviation of neck pain from cervical discogenic injury without radiculopathy.  They noted that few significant complications were observed, suggesting that Coblation annuloplasty was a feasible and minimally invasive technique for cervical discogenic pain management.

The authors stated that this study had several drawbacks.  First, they only followed-up subjects for a 1-year period post-operatively; thus, they could not claim that the technique was effective at relieving this kind of pain for a much longer duration.  Second, the pain duration prior to the surgical procedures was 0.5 to 8 years.  This wide-ranging pain duration made the final therapeutic effect varied widely; however, these investigators did not carry out stratified analyses of the therapeutic effect according to pain duration, so their combined results only reflected an average effect of the technique.  That is, these researchers could not exclude the possible association between different pain durations and the eventual interventional effect.  Third, although the VAS pain rating system was the widely used tool for evaluation of pain, these researchers could not eliminate the subjective preference of patients on their own pain ratings.  Fourth, the subject’s labor type and socioeconomic status were 2 important factors affecting their perception of pain.  The authors did not conduct a sub-analysis of the impacts of these 2 factors on their final pain rating.  Fifth, these investigators could not exclude the influence of different extents of disc injury prior to the interventional surgery on the final therapeutic effects.  Finally, Coblation annuloplasty itself is a blind technique; thus, it was difficult for the physician to completely destroy the nerve endings and remove the inflamed nucleus and annular fissure, which would undoubtedly reduce its therapeutic efficacy.

Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Coblation of the Thoracic Nerve Root for the Treatment of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia

Luo and colleagues (2020) noted that post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most intractable pain disorders and often does not respond to medication, physical, and interventional procedures.  Coblation technology has been reported to have potential for the treatment of neuralgia; however, there are rare reports on the safety and efficacy of Coblation for PHN.  The thoracic segment is the most common predilection part of PHN. These researchers examined the safety and efficacy of CT-guided Coblation of the thoracic nerve root for the treatment of PHN.  A total of 77 patients with thoracic PHN sustained for at least 6 months and refractory to conservative therapy were identified.  Patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous Coblation to ablate the thoracic nerve root for thoracic PHN.  The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a VAS, medication doses, and pain-related QOL scale before Coblation, and at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure.  Patients who achieved more than 50 % pain relief were defined as responders.  Furthermore, AEs were also recorded to examine the safety of this procedure.  The VAS score significantly decreased from 7.22 ± 1.15 before the Coblation to 3.51 ± 1.12 (p = 0.01), 3.02 ± 1.21 (p = 0.006), 3.11 ± 2.15 (p = 0.014), and 2.98 ± 2.35 (p = 0.008) at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure, respectively.  The number of responders were 56 (77.78 %), 54 (75 %), 55 (76.39 %), and 54 (75 %) at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure, respectively.  The doses of anticonvulsants and analgesics consumed decreased significantly at all time-points after the procedure compared with before treatment (p < 0.05).  Patient responses on the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form indicated mean scores that were significantly lower than baseline across all domains of pain interference with QOL at all evaluations (p = 0.001).  Most of the subjects had mild numbness and it did not affect the daily activities after the procedure.  No other severe AEs occurred during or after the procedure.  The authors concluded that CT-guided percutaneous thoracic nerve root Coblation was a safe and effective method for the treatment of thoracic PHN, and the procedure could also significantly improve the QOL in patients with PHN.

The authors stated that several limitations in this study should be addressed in future trials.  First, this study comprised a retrospective clinical trial that lacked a control group.  Second, the study was a single-center study, the included patients may also not be generalizable to different patient populations.  Third, the long time-span of some patient’s condition, which may affect the overall therapeutic effect.  Fourth, because the sample size was relatively small, the subgroup analysis of therapeutic effect was not carried out according to the course of disease.  Future studies should include a large, prospective study across multiple sites with the inclusion of a non-intervention control group, and a longer follow-up period should be carried out to further examine its risks and benefits.

Radiofrequency Coblation for the Treatment of Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions

Estes (2020) noted that osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions entail disruption of the osteochondral unit along articular surfaces, with significant potential for joint deterioration if not managed appropriately.  These investigators reported on the case of a 15-year old male who presented with persistent and insidious right knee pain, which had worsened following a collision with another player during a basketball game, resulting in episodes of locking.  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a lateral trochlear OCD extending into the anterior lateral femoral condyle.  Chondral fraying was observed along the margins of the OCD.  Retrograde drilling ensued with use of a 0.045-inch Kirschner wire throughout the lesion to a depth that would allow for penetration of healthy underlying subchondral bone to create an influx of healing factors.  Three resorbable pegs were arthroscopically placed through an accessory portal overlying the lesion to stabilize the fracture and compress the gapped cartilage mantle to reduce flow of synovial fluid behind the lesion.  Bi-polar RF Coblation was used to stabilize the chondral fraying and seal the gap along the periphery of the lesion.  The patient was put on a non-weight bearing protocol for 6 weeks, after which crutches and brace were discontinued, but therapy persisted.  Repeat imaging at 3 months demonstrated excellent interval healing.  The patient was released to slowly engage impact activities.  Although he returned at approximately 8 months post-operatively with a contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, he reported the operated knee with the OCD was doing extremely well.  The author concluded that RF Coblation appeared to be a viable strategy as an adjunct to management for OCD in children, although further follow-up studies are needed to confirm this.

Radiofrequency Coblation for the Treatment of Peri-Scapular Tendinopathy

Tham and colleagues (2020) stated that overuse injuries of the tendon -- tendinopathy -- account for 30 % to 50 % of all sporting injuries and a high proportion of orthopedic referrals from primary care physicians.  Tendinopathies often have a multi-factorial etiology and injury can be due to a combination of both acute and chronic trauma that contributed to loss of tissue integrity and eventual rupture.  The incomplete understanding of the mechanisms surrounding tendon pathophysiology continues to cause difficulties in treatments beyond loading regimes that can be unsuccessful in up to 30 % of cases.  These investigators described an uncommon case of tendinopathy affecting the peri-scapular muscle/tendon unit in a 35-year old woman with persistent pain around the inferior posterior pole of her right scapula; MRI findings confirmed edema of the muscles around the inferior scapular margin in keeping with enthesopathy/tendinopathy; and the patient was treated with RF Coblation.  The authors concluded that this case highlighted RF Coblation may be a useful surgical adjunct in patients who have failed non-operative treatment for persistent peri-scapular tendon pathology.  This was a single-case study; its findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Transoral Radiofrequency Coblation for the Treatment of Laryngopharyngeal Vascular Lesions

In a retrospective study, Jia and colleagues (2021) examined the feasibility and efficacy of transoral RF Coblation surgery (TRS) in the treatment of laryngopharyngeal vascular lesion (LVL) in adults.  A total of 15 patients with LVL were studied, including 11 capillary lesions and 5 cavernous lesions (there was 1 case with 2 separate lesions).  All of the lesions were treated with TRS alone (capillary lesion) or with a combination of TRS and sclerotherapy (cavernous lesion).  The treatment efficacy was evaluated according to the modified Achauer criteria: grade-1, no change in size; grade-2, a decrease of less than 50 % in size; grade-3, a decrease of greater than or equal to 50 % but less than 100 %; and grade-4, the disappearance of the lesion with no recurrence for at least 6 months.  The surgical procedures were successfully completed in all patients.  According to the modified Achauer criteria, the treatment outcomes were grade-4 for 10 capillary lesions and 1 cavernous lesion; grade-3 for 1 capillary lesion and 1 cavernous lesion; grade-2 for 1 cavernous lesion; and grade-1 for 2 cavernous lesions, respectively.  No complications related to the surgery, including bleeding, dysphagia, and infections, were observed following treatment.  The authors concluded that TRS was an effective therapeutic option for LVL, especially for patients with laryngopharyngeal capillary lesions.  Level of Evidence = IV.  This was a small (n = 15), retrospective study; its findings need to be validated by well-designed studies.

Vivaer Nasal Airway Remodeling System

Brehmer et al (2019) noted that weak or inward-bent cartilage of the nasal sidewall at the level of the internal nasal valve (INV) can produce narrowness or collapse of the nasal valve.  This is a common cause of impaired nasal breathing during daily activities and there is also an established connection between nasal obstruction and snoring.  The condition is often difficult to treat, although even a small enlargement of the lumen at the nasal valve can lead to a significant improvement in the ease of nasal breathing.  In a prospective study, these researchers examined the safety and effectiveness of the Vivaer system for the treatment of narrowed nasal valves and to measure changes in the symptoms of nasal obstruction and snoring.  The Vivaer system uses low energy RF to remodel the nasal sidewall in order to improve airflow.  The study involved 31 patients presenting from September 1, 2017 to May 1, 2018 with symptoms of nasal obstruction and snoring.  In all patients, an improvement was observed in nasal breathing measured by Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale (NOSE) score, sleep quality by SOS questionnaire and QOL as measured by EQ-5D and SNOT-22.  The authors concluded that Vivaer intra-nasal re-modeling could provide a durable and well-tolerated non-invasive treatment for those patients who were suffering congestion due to narrowness or collapse of the INV.

The authors stated that the inherent limitation of this study was certainly the absence of a placebo group (non-treatment group) and the short follow-up period (average of 3 months).  These researchers stated that a further improvement to the study would be the substitution of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) for the SOS questionnaire, which suffers some difficulties in administration and interpretation.

In a prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, case-series study, Jacobowitz et al (2019) examined the safety and effectiveness of in-office bipolar RF treatment of nasal valve obstruction.  Adult patients with a NOSE Scale score greater than or equal to 60 were selected.  Patients were clinically diagnosed with dynamic or static INV obstruction as primary or significant contributor to obstruction and were required to have a positive response to nasal mechanical dilators or lateralization maneuvers.  Bilateral RF treatment was applied intra-nasally using a novel device, under local anesthesia in a single session.  Safety and tolerance were assessed by event reporting, inspection, and VAS for pain.  Efficacy was determined using the NOSE Scale score and patient-reported satisfaction survey at 26 weeks.  A total of 50 patients were treated.  No device or procedure-related serious AEs occurred.  Soreness, edema, and crusting resolved by 1 month.  The mean baseline NOSE Scale score was 79.9 (SD 10.8, range of 60 to 100), and all had severe or extreme obstruction.  At 26 weeks, mean NOSE Scale score was 69 % lower at 24.7 (p < 0.0001) with 95 % 2-sided CIs 48.5 to 61.1 for decrease.  The decrease in NOSE Scale score did not differ significantly between patients who did or did not have prior nasal surgery.  Patient satisfaction mean by survey was 8.2 of 10.  The authors concluded that in office treatment of INV obstruction using a bipolar RF device was safe and well-tolerated.  Nasal obstruction, as assessed using the NOSE questionnaire at 26 weeks, was markedly improved with high patient satisfaction.  Level of Evidence = IIb.

The authors stated that the limitations of this study include its uncontrolled, non-randomized, unblinded design that can be prone to selection bias.  The NOSE Scale score is a validated outcome tool, but consists of subjective reporting; thus, the outcome was susceptible to the Hawthorne effect where subjects may respond differently due to being in a study.  While a placebo effect could not be excluded, the high magnitude of response was supportive for a true clinical response.  With respect to the patient population, the cohort was almost entirely Caucasian, and limited to 50 subjects.  A placebo-controlled study with a larger and more diverse population would be desirable.  Furthermore, the endpoint analysis was performed at 26 weeks post-procedure; therefore, relatively short follow-up.  These researchers stated that follow-up for outcome over several years is needed to examine longevity of the patients’ outcome and this study will be performed.

Ephrat et al (2021) noted that insufficiency of the nasal valve is increasingly being recognized as a cause of nasal airway obstruction (NAO).  The condition is associated with many symptoms, including nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, snoring, and an overall decline in QOL.  An in-office, minimally invasive RF treatment of the nasal valve has been associated with improved symptoms of nasal obstruction and patients’ QOL for a 6-month period in a non-controlled, prospective, single-arm study.  In a non-controlled, single-arm study, these researchers examined if the results achieved with RF treatment at 6 months would be sustained through 24 months.  A total of 39 adult patients from an original cohort of 49 patients with severe-to-extreme NOSE Scale scores and dynamic or static INV obstruction as the primary or significant contributor to obstruction were studied.  Patients received intra-nasal bilateral RF treatment in a clinical study with a follow-up to 6 months, and were prospectively evaluated at 12, 18, and 24 months at 8 community-based otolaryngology practices.  The patient-reported NOSE Scale score and 21 QOL questions were assessed.  Clinically significant improvement from baseline in NOSE Scale score change demonstrated at 6 months (mean of 55.9; standard deviation [SD], 23.6; p < 0.0001) was maintained through 24 months (mean of 53.5; SD, 24.6; p < 0.0001).  Responders (greater than or equal to 15-point improvement) consisted of 92.3 % of participants at 6 months and 97.2 % at 24 months.  Responses to the QOL questions also showed improvement in patients’ QOL.  The authors concluded that treatment of the nasal valve with an in-office, trans-nasal temperature-controlled RF procedure was associated with stable and lasting improvement in symptoms of nasal obstruction and QOL through 24 months in this non-controlled, single-arm study.  Moreover, these researchers stated that it will be necessary to confirm the findings of this study in additional patients as part of a planned RCT that may help determine the relative true treatment effect versus potential placebo effects.

The authors stated that the main drawbacks of this study were the single-arm, non-randomized design and lack of a control group.  Based on the study design utilized, the observed association of treatment and NOSE Scale score could be due to a placebo effect.  Future studies will use a single-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled approach and larger sample sizes.  Another limitation was the lack of objective measures of nasal obstruction and nasal airflow.  However, there were numerous studies in the literature that showed a poor correlation between objective measures of nasal resistance and airflow and the symptoms of nasal obstruction.  The NOSE Scale is a validated survey that measures the reduced QOL attributed to nasal obstruction; thus, the NOSE Scale score is generally used as a primary outcome in studies of therapy for nasal obstruction.  Another limitation was that the extended follow-up study enrolled 39 of the 50 original participants in the original 6-month clinical study (49 were eligible for enrollment).  Comparison of demographic characteristics of original study participants who chose to enroll with those who did not enroll did not reveal any signs of symptomatic bias.  All of the original sites were represented in this study.  An initial concern that participants with less improvement or satisfaction with the procedure would choose not to enroll did not appear to take place.  Baseline and 26-week NOSE Scale scores for those enrolled in the follow-up study were slightly worse than for those that did not enroll, and all 3 of the non-responders at the 6-month endpoint of the original study enrolled in this follow-up study, indicating that bias toward enrollment of the most improved study participants was unlikely.  However, for consideration of worst case, if the 10 unenrolled participants from the original study and the 3 lost to follow-up in this study were all considered non-responders, then the overall 24-month responder percent was 71.4 %.

William et al (2021) stated that nasal valve collapse is a primary cause of nasal obstruction.  Patients with NAO suffer from a variety of symptoms that affect QOL including congestion, headache, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and snoring.  In a prospective, single-arm, multi-center study, these researchers examined the effectiveness of a low-power temperature-controlled RF procedure for the treatment of the nasal obstruction and measured symptomatic improvement in patients diagnosed with nasal airway obstruction due to nasal valve collapse.  This trial was carried out at 12 otolaryngology centers across the U.S. in adults greater than 18 years of age suffering from NAO that responded to temporary nasal valve dilation, and with a baseline NOSE Scale score of greater than or equal to 60.  Patients were treated in the nasal valve region with temperature-controlled RF energy and followed-up at 3 months.  A total of 122 adult patients underwent the procedure and 3 patients were lost to follow-up at the 3 months visit.  The NOSE total scores at 3 months post-procedure were significantly improved relative to baseline, from 80.3 (± 12.6; range of 60 to 100) to 32.9 (± 24.2; range of 0 to 100), p < 0.001.  At baseline, 100 % of patients' total NOSE scores were in the “extreme” (score of 80 to 100) or “severe” (55 to 75) categories; at 3 months post-procedure this decreased to 18.5 %.  At the 3-month visit, 91.6 % of the patients had either a 20 % improvement in NOSE total score relative to baseline or at least 1 severity category improvement.  The authors concluded that minimally-invasive temperature-controlled RF treatment of the INV resulted in significant improvement in NOSE Scale scores at 3 months.  These investigators stated that this treatment was safe and effective for the treatment of NAO due to valve collapse.  Moreover, these researchers stated that longer-term follow-up is needed to further evaluate the durability of the effect.

The authors stated that a limitation of this study was its lack of a control arm; thus, outcome reporting may be biased and improvement in symptoms scores could be partly due to a placebo effect.  These investigators stated that future RCTs are needed.  Moreover, 3-month outcomes reflected the acute effect but remain preliminary.  However, previous work has shown that 3-month data were predictive of long-term follow-up, and it is expected that these results will be similarly durable.  Patients continue to contribute data in this study and future reports will evaluate the durability of the longer-term treatment effect.

Silvers et al (2021) stated that nasal valve collapse is one of several causes of nasal obstruction.  The safety and effectiveness of a temperature-controlled RF device for the treatment of the nasal valve for NAO has been established in single-arm studies.  In a prospective, multi-center, single-blinded RCT, these researchers compared active device treatment against a sham procedure (control).  Subjects were assigned to bilateral temperature-controlled RF treatment of the nasal valve (n = 77) or a sham procedure (n = 41), in which no RF energy was transferred to the device/treatment area.  The device was applied to the mucosa over the lower lateral cartilage on the lateral nasal wall.  The primary endpoint was responder rate at 3 months, defined as a greater than or equal to 20 % reduction in NOSE Scale score or greater than or equal to 1 reduction in clinical severity category.  At baseline, patients had a mean NOSE Scale score of 76.7 (95 % CI: 73.8 to 79.5) and 78.8 (95 % CI: 74.2 to 83.3) (p = 0.424) in the active treatment and sham-control arms, respectively.  At 3 months, the responder rate was significantly higher in the active treatment arm (88.3 % [95 % CI: 79.2 % to 93.7 %] versus 42.5 % [95 % CI: 28.5 % to 57.8 %]; p < 0.001).  The active treatment arm had a significantly greater decrease in NOSE Scale score (mean of −42.3 [95 % CI: −47.6 to −37.1] versus −16.8 [95 % CI: −26.3 to −7.2]; p < 0.001); 3 AEs at least possibly related to the device and/or procedure were reported, and all resolved.  The authors concluded that this RCT showed temperature-controlled RF treatment of the nasal valve was safe and effective in reducing symptoms of NAO in short-term follow-up.

The authors stated that this study had several drawbacks.  Among them were those common to randomized, sham-controlled studies for medical devices and procedures.  Physicians were not blinded to treatment-arm assignment, which may have been a source of bias; however, this was mitigated by patient blinding and use of patient-reported outcome measures (i.e., NOSE Scale, ease-of-breathing VAS, pain VAS).  Unlike a placebo in pharmaceutical trials, which could appear identical to the active compound to patient, sham devices and procedures may differ enough from treatment that the patients guessed their arm allocation.  However, these researchers believed that the sham device and procedure in this trial closely replicated the treatment experience.  Medication use was not dictated by the protocol and could potentially have had some confounding effect on symptom relief.  However, primary endpoint analysis after converting responders to non-responders if they increased medication/mechanical nasal aid use did not change the superiority of active treatment over sham control.  Finally, the results reported here were through 3 months and longer-term follow-up will reveal the durability of the effect observed in this trial to-date.

Jacobowitz et al (2022) provided long-term (48 months) outcomes following repair of nasal valve collapse with temperature-controlled RF treatment for patients with nasal obstruction.  Patients in this extended 48-month follow-up study were invited to participate after completing an initial 26-week study with an extension to 24 months.  The initial study was a prospective, single-arm, multi-center study enrolling patients with chronic severe nasal obstruction with nasal valve collapse identified as the primary cause of obstruction.  Patients with prior nasal valve surgery or other surgical nasal procedures within the past 12 months were excluded.  Medication use was not controlled during the study, but patients were medically treated before surgery.  Patients underwent bilateral treatment with a Vivaer device, which maintains treatment temperature at 60 degrees C.  The stylus tip was placed against mucosa underlying the lower edge of the upper lateral cartilage; 3 to 4 non-overlapping sites on the lateral nasal wall received treatment for 12 seconds.  No concomitant treatments were allowed.  Extended follow-up assessments included use of the validated NOSE scale score, completed in person, by telephone, or via mail at 36- and 48-month post-procedure.  Of the 49 patients in the initial study, 39 agreed to participate in follow-up through 24 months.  Of these 29 patients agreed to extended follow-up through 48 months (5 declined participation, 3 did not respond to the invitation, and 2 had a surgical procedure for nasal airway obstruction and were ineligible to continue).  Demographic and baseline characteristics were presented for initial and long-term follow-up cohorts, including those who declined to participate.  The baseline mean NOSE score was 81.0 (± 9.9), and at 6 months it was 21.6 (± 18.6) with 93 % responders.  Except for mean age, participants versus non-participants had no significant differences in characteristics.  The proportion of 6-month responders among the non-enrolled group was 95 %, confirming that early treatment response was unlikely to be associated with participation in extended follow-up.  Compared with baseline, mean total NOSE scores significantly improved after treatment and were maintained throughout the 48 months.  NOSE scores decreased from 81.0 (± 9.9) at baseline to 21.6 (± 18.6) after 6 months (73.3 % change), 25.6 (± 21.1) after 12 months (68.3 % change), 29.3 (± 26.6) after 18 months (63.8 % change), 22.5 (± 20.9) after 24 months (72.2 % change), 32.3 (± 21.4) after 36 months (60.1 % change), and 25.7 (± 19.1) after 48 months (68.3 % change) (p < 0.001 for all comparisons).  Mean NOSE domain scores showed sustained improvement through 48 months, including patients with NOSE scores in the “extreme” (score of 80 to 100) or “severe” (score of 55 to 75) categories at baseline.  At 48 months, 67.9 % of patients had severity scores in the “no problems” or “mild” categories, 21.4 % were in the “moderate” and 10.7 % were in the “severe” categories, and none in the “extreme” category, representing significant changes in the proportion of patients in each category (p < 0.001). Based on a greater than or equal to 15-point improvement on the NOSE score scale, 93.1 % (27 of 29), 96.3 % (26 of 27), 96.6 % (28 of 29), 100 % (27 of 27), 92.9 % (26 of 28), and 96.4 % (27 of 28) of patients were considered responders at the 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month follow-up times, respectively.  The authors concluded that in the longest follow-up report to-date, significant and sustained improvements in symptoms of nasal airway obstruction were shown through 4 years following treatment of nasal valve collapse via a single temperature-controlled RF procedure.

The authors stated that this study was limited by its use of a single-arm design without randomized control, no control of medication usage, and significant patient attrition relative to the primary study.  Two non-participants were known to have undergone subsequent surgery for nasal obstruction and it was possible that the effectiveness declined in the extended follow-up non-participants, although participants and non-participants had similar baseline characteristics and both groups experienced robust NOSE score reductions at 6 months.

Coblation-Assisted Arytenoidectomy for the Treatment of Infants with Vocal Cord Paralysis

Hu and associates (2019) noted that there are many causes for vocal cord paralysis (VCP) that can result in difficulty in breathing in serious cases.  The common surgical methods for treating VCP include laryngeal splitting or laser surgery; however, there are limitations.  Plasma RF ablation is a new treatment with good achievements in clinical applications.  These investigators examined the effect of Coblation-assisted arytenoidectomy (CSA) in the treatment of bilateral VCP (BVCP).  All patients had undergone pre-operative electro-laryngoscopic examination of the glottidis rima; electronic laryngoscopy can assess the width of the glottis.  The purpose of pre-operative electronic laryngoscopic evaluation was to examine the width of the glottis, and arytenoid cartilage movement.  Unilateral arytenoid cartilage and a section of the vocal cords were removed in all cases.  Of the 14 patients, 13 were successfully extubated after CSA; 1 patient could not be extubated and underwent a 2nd CSA of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage, after which extubation was achieved.  All patients were continuously followed-up (6 months to 2 years), and all achieved satisfactory results.  The authors concluded that CSA could effectively relieve post-CSA dyspnea in patients with BVCP.  More patients underwent tracheal cannula extubation after tracheotomy compared with other surgeries.

These researchers stated that Coblation is useful in the treatment of BVCP; however, it also has limitations.  For example, the knife is more expensive; and all the supplies are disposable, putting it out of economic reach of some patients.  However, the improvement in QOL associated with this technique, and better understanding of the advantages made it likely that more patients will choose this new technology.  Currently, the patients with BVCP treated in the authors’ department are still few, the follow-up time is short, and there is a lack of comparison with traditional surgical methods; thus, large-scale studies and long-term follow-up are needed for the observation of long-term effectiveness.  In the future, these investigators hope to carry out larger studies to confirm the value of Coblation in the treatment of BVCP.

In a retrospective study, Tan and colleagues (2022) reviewed their experience with endoscopic Coblation-assisted and partial arytenoidectomy (ECPA) in the treatment of idiopathic BVCP.  This analysis included 33 infants (19 boys and 14 girls, aged 1 to 10 months) with idiopathic BVCP undergoing ECPA.  The therapeutic process and outcomes (surgical success, swallowing function, and voice) were reviewed.  The follow-up period was greater than 33 months.  Among the 33 infants with idiopathic BVCP, surgery was successful in 29 cases (87.9 %)  but failed in 4 cases (12.1 %); 21, 9, and 3 patients underwent right, left, and bilateral ECPA, with surgical success rates of 90.5 %, 100.0 %, and 33.3 %, respectively.  Furthermore, 4 and 6 cases were combined with subglottic stenosis (SGS) and laryngomalacia, respectively.  The surgical success rates of BVCP alone and BVCP+ other airway abnormalities were 95.6 % and 70.0 %, respectively.  During the follow-up, 5 infants had slight difficulty swallowing, 12 infants had partial or complete recovery movement of at least 1 vocal cord with satisfactory voice outcome, and 5 infants had early granuloma formation, which disappeared spontaneously.  The authors concluded that ECPA appeared to be a promising alternative to tracheostomy and initial management in infants with idiopathic BVCP who were free of other airway abnormalities. 

Radiofrequency Coblation for the Treatment of Tracheal Tumors

Wang and colleagues (2021) stated that RF Coblation is a new method of electro-surgical intervention.  Most recently, its use has been reported in the treatment of laryngo-tracheal pathology.  However, studies on Coblation for tracheal tumors have not been reported.  These researchers described a novel use of Coblation technology, in which a new type of airway-specific wand was employed to ablate tracheal benign or malignant tumors in 3 cases.  The authors concluded that the results suggested the possibility of using Coblation in the treatment of tracheal tumors.  However, these researchers stated that more studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are needed to examine the use of RF Coblation in the treatment of tracheal tumors.

The authors stated that this case-series study had several drawbacks.  First, this was an initial attempt to examine the use of Coblation in the treatment of tracheal tumors and only 3 cases were included.  Second, due to the rarity of primary tracheal tumors, the 2 cases of benign tumors in this report were not representative of benign lesions typically observed in the trachea.  Third, patients still needed to be followed due to the limitation of follow-up period.


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